Substance abuse 5. Risk factors for periodontal disease can be both systemic and local, such as smoking; medical conditions, poorly controlled diabetes, possibly obesity and stress play a significant role in the initiation and progression of PD. While it is accepted that the primary etiology of periodontitis is bacterial infection and a susceptible host response,15,16 the initiation and rate of destruction is affected by systemic and local risk factors. Contents available in the book…………. Torrungruang K, Bandhaya P, Likittanasombat K, Grittayaphong C. J Periodontol.  |  Crooked teeth 7. Smoking or chewing tobacco 4. Thus, a low dietary intake of vitamin-C and calcium can adversely affect the periodontal status of the individual 65. Stress management has been shown to improve the periodontal status of patients with periodontitis 27. Poor oral health habits 6. To establish a factor as a risk factor or determinant for periodontal disease, the evidence is gathered from longitudinal cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case series, case-control study, and controlled clinical trials. Diabetes 3. Supra- and subgingival calculus deposits act as local plaque retention factors. It can be concluded from the above discussion that risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases, as well as they affect the overall treatment plan designed for the patient. Smoking affects the subgingival microflora in periodontitis. BMC Oral Health. 1994 May;65:479-88. In a study 66 on data obtained from NHANES III from 13,198 individuals which employed 20 years and older adults, it was observed that a linear relationship existed between a number of alcoholic drinks per week and log clinical attachment loss (P= 0.0001). Van Dyke TE, Dave S. Risk factors for periodontitis. The patient may have a single or multiple risk factors or determinants. The risk assessment is done based on the patient’s demographic data, medical history, dental history, and clinical examination. In fact, 70.1% of adults65 years and older have periodontal disease. Xerostomia. Gingivitis 2. Thus, aging cannot be considered as a risk factor per se 44. Poor oral health habits 3. Stańdo M, Piatek P, Namiecinska M, Lewkowicz P, Lewkowicz N. Nutrients. Bacterial species, including Porphyromonas gingivalis 1, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans 2, 3, Bacteroides forsythus 4, Prevotella intermedia 5, Peptostreptococcus micros 6, Fusobacterium nucleatum 7 and spirochetes 8, 9 have been specifically found to contain the virulence factors responsible for evasion of host response and periodontal breakdown. Studies have shown that individuals demonstrating aggressive periodontal breakdown have prolonged and excessive activation of the latent MMPs resulting in the enhanced degradation of collagen, which is a primary component of the periodontal matrix 36-38. Family studies, twin studies, population studies and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been done to find out the genetic basis of periodontal diseases. References are available in the hard-copy of the website. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The risk factors for periodontal diseases can be classified broadly into two categories: modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. However, it must be remembered that bleeding on probing does not indicate the severity of periodontal breakdown. Poor oral hygiene 4. These are the spaces between roots of molars. However, it should be noted that the development of periodontal lesions vary among HIV-positive patients depending on the status of their immune system and maintenance of oral hygiene. Contents available in the book…………. Initiation and progression of periodontal infections are affected by local and systemic conditions. Contents available in the book…………. A stressed individual often takes inadequate diet, which is responsible for the overall deterioration of his/her health. The risk markers for periodontal disease include the previous history of periodontal disease and bleeding on probing. Factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis include: 1. For example, if the patient is a smoker, the smoking cessation protocol should be included in the treatment plan. Substance abuse 7. Taking medications that cause dry mouth 10. While these cannot be modified, recognizing them can help oral health professionals determine the most appropriate interventions. 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