." Collaborating with Lynn Hoefert, she made discoveries regarding the virus causing western yellows disease in beets. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. "Katherine Esau's (1898-1997) 1953 first edition of Plant Anatomy became an instant classic and ushered in a new era in plant anatomy. Esau’s most important contributions depended on her exceptionally careful and clear comparative study of the cells and tissues of healthy and infected plants. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. A shift from plant geneticist to plant anatomist came about as Esau entered graduate school in 1928. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Katherine Esau. “Katherine Esau, 1898–1997.” Annual Review of Phytopathology 36 (September 1998): 27–40. During World War II, Esau became involved in a project to find more productive rubberyielding strains of the guayule plant. Unlike many refugees in that period, she was able to present her education credentials to the school's registrar, including not only the necessary documentation of her completed course work but even the gold medal that the Ekaterinoslav gymnasium had awarded her for academic excellence. Throughout history, there have been many German women scientists who have made significant contribution to the field. Available from http://www.botany.org/bsa/misc/esau.html One of Esau’s most prominent graduate students, Evert focused his address as president-elect of the Botanical Society of America on Esau’s life and scientific accomplishments. Her father’s skill in managing money enabled the family to emigrate to the United States in 1922. Anatomy of Seed Plants. . Determined to achieve her educational goals despite her family's painful displacement, Katherine Esau registered in Berlin's highly regarded College of Agriculture. Plant Anatomy. The Mennonites prospered in their agricultural colonies, maintaining a separate cultural, religious and linguistic identity, which by the late 19th century began to expose them collectively to Russian and Ukrainian accusations that they constituted alien islands of arrogant and inassimilable Germans in a Slavic sea. A plant physiologist studies a large variety of plant processes, such as how chemicals are transported throughout the plant, how plants…, Plants As essential to botany as her textbooks have been, Esau’s research contributions reach far beyond that of textbook author. 3. Her Plant Anatomy is a classic in the field. 3. Family Background and Career Path . From the start of her academic career at Davis, Esau worked on an ambitious research agenda. Though she experienced upheaval in her early life, her work was, by all accounts, exceptional. Esau, Katherine. Only the payment of large sums of money as bribes made it possible for the train to receive permission to pass safely through various areas that were controlled by motley revolutionary committees and local bandits. 33–37. Her treatise The Phloem, published in 1969 as Volume 5 of the Hand-buch der Pflanzenanatomie, reviewed studies of phloem from their inception and relied much on information from her own research efforts. The…, Physiologist At this stage in her life, she chose agriculture over botany, because she was convinced that botany was a sterile discipline that did little more than name and classify plants. Her research questions included understanding the pathways of several economically important plant viruses (long before the basic structure of viruses was clearly understood), their relationship to the infected phloem tissues, and the elusive structure of the phloem itself. Her research spanned from hybridization of sugar beets (above) to light-microscope studies. F or over 100 years, plant scientists have studied the construc- tion of tissues and of whole plants on the basis of cell properties. Despite her initial reluctance to teach, she came to enjoy it and her students responded accordingly. October 1985, pp. Ruddat, Manfred, and Edward D. Garber. Legacy . This edition includes many of the original figures from Esau’s original texts and research and is an updated discussion of developments in the field. Esau’s legacy is rooted in the fundamental descriptive science of plant anatomy precisely because it is a highly practical and necessary field of endeavor. Her early work in plant anatomy focused on the effect of viruses on plants, specifically on plant tissue and development. John Esau became active in Mennonite relief work while Paul continued his studies. Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Jennifer Thorsch became Esau’s last graduate student when Esau was eighty-one years old and remained close to her in her final years. It is given to the graduate student who presents an outstanding paper in developmental and structural botany at the BSA annual meeting. Dictionaries thesauruses pictures and press releases, Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Half of her time would be spent teaching, the rest carrying out research projects at the College of Agriculture's experiment station. Vol. Kingdoms are the main divisions into which scientists classify all living things on Earth. Her textbooks Plant Anatomy (“Big Esau,” 1953, 2nd ed., 1965; 3rd ed. (October 16, 2020). â¦. These two final references are coauthored by Jennifer Thorsch, Esau’s last graduate student, who cared for her in her later years, and Evert, who carried on much of Esau’s work on phloem. Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Katherine Esau, Russian-born American botanist who did groundbreaking work in the structure and workings of plants. Beginning with a general overview, chapters then cover the protoplast, cell wall, and meristems, through to phloem, periderm, and secretory structures. Dr. Esau was assigned to teach Plant Anatomy, Systematic Botany, Morphology of Crop Plants, and Microtechnique. Katherine Esau was a German - American scientist well known as a plant anatomist. Her descriptions are a clear, concise, cell-by-cell account of the changes that occur with development or with infection. . “Profiles of Pioneer Women Scientists: Katherine Esau.” Botanical Review (July 1996): 209–271. In 1960, when Esau was in her early 60s, an age when other scientists often started planning for retirement, she began a new and even more productive phase of her scientific career when she began working with the electron microscope at UC-Davis. New York: Wiley, 1953; 2nd ed., 1965. “Studies of the Breeding of Sugar Beets for Resistance to Curly Top.” Hilgardia 4 (1930): 417–441. With Robert H. Gill. Esauâs most important contributions depended on her exceptionally careful and clear comparative study of the cells and tissues of healthy and infected plants. Beginning with a general overview, chapters then cover the protoplast, cell wall, and meristems, through to phloem, periderm, and secretory structures. Painstaking work on her part explained the mystery, namely that the problem was due to fact that the plant had been able to reproduce without sexual union taking place. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Often, of necessity, creative in devising new methods for her research, she has been a pioneer in intimately following plant growth and meticulously describing the process. ." She continued to live with her parents in a house near the Davis campus, and it was here that she spent many hours in a darkroom working on microphotographs. She was particularly interested in the phloem tissue of plants, which conducted food through the organism. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Imperial Germany took advantage of the disintegration to conquer grain-rich Ukrainian lands, and with Ekaterinoslav now under German military rule John Esau once again sat in the mayor's seat. The long-anticipated revision of this text has been published as Evert, Ray F., Esau’s Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function, and Development, 3rd ed., Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The concept Plant anatomy represents the subject, aboutness, idea or notion of resources found in Boston University Libraries. . ", Katherine Esau's work was her life. 31, no. In Ekaterinoslav, she had been an excellent student at the local gymnasium, showing a strong interest in the sciences. July 1996, pp. Encyclopedia.com. Many had a reputation as excellent farmers, and rural communities in various parts of Europe benefited from the establishment of Mennonite colonies. In her dissertation research she did a comprehensive comparison of the cells and tissues of infected and normal plants, in particular the phloem tissues. Berlin-Stuttgart: Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1969. National Academy of Sciences, nongovernmental American organization of scientists and engineers, established March 3, 1863, by act of Congress to serve as an official adviser to the government in all matters of science and technology. Esau knew that as a hated bourgeois and member of a German Christian pacifist sect, she stood little chance of doing any effective work in Lenin's Soviet state. She was known to start her lectures with the words “Once upon a time,” which led students to refer to the lectures as “Esau’s fables.” She invented a continuing story, “The Saga of Vladimir the Virus, or the Account of the Tragic Fate of Norman the Nucleus,” to illustrate the progress of viral infection of a cell’s nucleus with a series of electron micrographs. 16 Oct. 2020
. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Esau's productivity continued, although she had officially "retired" from her teaching duties in Santa Barbara in 1965. 2nd ed. Although the bulk of her graduate work took place at Davis, she was officially enrolled at University of California at Berkeley, where she took a number of advanced courses in botany. Katherine Esau has lived through a period of major developments in plant anatomy and plant pathology, fields in which she has made major contributions. In 1869 Esau’s father, Johan, and his brother Jacob became the first Mennonite boys in their community to go to a Russian school. “Origin and Development of Primary Vascular Tissues in Seed Plants.” Botanical Review 9 (1943): 125–206. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Esau was born in Russia (now Ukraine) to Johan (John) Esau and Margrethe Toews Esau, both of whom came from highly educated German Mennonite families. Determined to find stability, the Esau family quickly settled down in Berlin. Encyclopedia.com. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. KATHERINE ESAU: A LIFE OF ACHIEVEMENTS David Russell is Director of the University of California, Santa Barbara, Oral History Program. For the next two years she studied agriculture, first at the Berlin Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule and then at the Hohenheim College of Agriculture near Stuttgart, returning to Berlin to obtain the title Land-wirtschaftlehrerin and later to pass the Zusatzprufung in plant breeding. When the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 cut short her agricultural studies in Moscow, The Phloem: Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie. Katherine Esau's Contribution to Botany. A complete and detailed text on the development and structure of the vegetative structures (leaves, stems, roots, wood, and bark) of vascular plants. A more streamlined version of the principles of plant anatomy that also includes chapters on plant reproductive structures (flowers, fruits, seeds), this text has been used extensively in plant anatomy courses and in the early 2000s forms the basis for how many botanists teach the discipline. Katherine EsauâA Life of Achievements is part of an ongoing project dealing with UCSB faculty. With this work, she made a major contribution to an understanding of plant pathology, establishing the concept of a "phloem-limited virus. These studies lay the groundwork for the current understanding of plant viruses and phloem structure and function. A disease-resistant strain of sugar beet had already been developed, but it was of little economic value since it had a poorly shaped root and low sugar content. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Her classes, which were popular with students, were conducted in a relaxed manner and enlivened by her keen sense of humor. Abir-Am, P. G., and Dorinda Outram, eds., Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science 1789–1979. Katherine took a series of jobs including one in the town of Oxnard with a struggling seed company. After successfully producing a curly top-resistant sugarbeet, Esau left Spreckels in 1927 for graduate studies at UC Davis, where she became a plant anatomist. In 1963, Esau moved to the University of California at Santa Barbara, where she continued her investigations of plant viral diseases. Dedicated to the brilliant scholar Professor Emeritus Katherine Esau. . Her parents John and Margarethe Esau were Mennonites, a religious minority from Germany who had sought refuge and land in imperial Russia in the 18th century. Russian-born botanist Katherine Esauâs pioneering research laid the groundwork for modern scientists studying plant structure and cell function, and continues to influence generations of botany students. A plant physiologist studies a large variety of plant processes, such as how chemicals are transported throughout the plant, how plants…, Modern classification systems, based largely on molecular evidence, divide living organisms into three domains: Bacteria (also called Eubacteria), Ar…, Plant pathology is the study of diseases, injuries, or other factors that affect the welfare of plants. 62, no. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/esau-katherine-1898-1997. She excelled in her first year, taking courses in natural sciences, physics, chemistry and geology. Viruses in Plant Hosts: Form, Distribution, and Pathologic Effects. Among her honors were a Guggenheim fellowship in 1940 for work at Harvard, a Faculty Research Lectureship at the University of California, Davis (the highest honor the faculty can give to a peer) in 1946; election to the National Academy of Sciences (the sixth woman to receive this honor) in 1957 and to the American Philosophical Society in 1964. With Lynn L. Hoefert. These insights were of great value for botanists worldwide who were trying to find a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of plant diseases, particularly in crops that played a significant role in the human food supply. She trained not only pure but applied scientists who needed to understand the economically important plants that she studied with such rigor. "Esau, Katherine Mennonites as a religious group had been alternately tolerated and exiled throughout Europe, in part because of their pacifist beliefs. A plant is a multicelled organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis. NY: John Wiley, 1953, 2nd ed., 1965. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968. Band V, Teil 2, Histologie. "Katherine Esau (1898—)," in Benjamin F. Shearer and Barbara S. Shearer, eds. McDavid, Lee. Evert, Ray F. "Katherine Esau," in Plant Science Bulletin. (b. Yekaterinoslav [also spelled Ekaterinoslav], Russia [later Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine], 3 April, 1898; d. Santa Barbara, California, 4 June 1997), plant anatomy, phloem structure and function, transmission electron microscopy, plant ultrastructure, plant viruses. For more than six decades she undertook pure and applied research, studying pathological and normal tissue development. ." Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Her carefully executed and systematic investigations of infected and noninfected sugar beets clarified previously little-understood mechanisms of viral infection and degeneration in plants. Esau’s first paper, based on her early work in plant breeding for resistant crops, drawn on her work at the Spreckle Seed Company near Salinas, California. Upon completion of her dissertation in 1932, she was hired as a lecturer and researcher at the University of California at Davis, where she worked until 1963. Whereas other plant anatomists took a static view of structures, her studies were dynamic, following the development and differentiation of tissues. “Ultrastructure of Sugar Beet Leaves Infected with Beet Western Yellows Virus.” Journal of Ultrastructure Research 40 (1972): 556–571. "Katherine Esau (1898—)," in Louise S. Grinstein et al., eds., Women in the Biological Sciences: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook. The Botanical Society of America, which elected her to its presidency, created the Katherine Esau Award for the single most outstanding paper in developmental and structural botany. In recognition of her legacy, the Katherine Esau Award of Botanical Society of America is given annually at the society’s meeting. In October 1989, President George Bush awarded Esau the National Medal of Science: she was cited for the excellence of her work, "which has spanned more than six decades; for her superlative performance as an educator, in the classroom and through her books; for the encouragement and inspiration she has given to a legion of young, aspiring plant biologists; and for providing a special role model for women in science. Katherine's formal education in Russia had ended with the Bolshevik Revolution, but during her final year in that ravaged nation she had continued her studies by learning English, taking piano lessons, attending a gardening school, and accumulating a collection of plant specimens that she planned to present as a completed project when more settled conditions made it possible to resume her interrupted formal studies. Thorsch, Jennifer, and Ray F. Evert. The text follows a logical structure-based organization. After receiving a doctorate, she joined the faculty in 1931. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. In particular, horticulture is concerned with plants that are economically impo…, insectivorous plant (carnivorous plant) Any of several plants that have poorly developed root systems and are often found in nitrogen-deficient sandy…, Erznoznik v. City of Jacksonville 422 U.S. 205 (1975), https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/esau-katherine-1898-1997. Part 2, 1992, Katherine Esau Symposium Special Issue: Plant Structure—Concepts, Connection, and Challenges, University of California, Davis, March 28–31, 1992. “Katherine Esau (3 April 1898–4 June 1997).” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society143 (December 1999): 665–672. Botany, branch of biology that deals with the study of plants, including their structure, properties, and biochemical processes. 113–117. Best known for her textbooks on plant structure and development, Esau literally wrote the book on plant anatomy for U.S. botanists. This time, however, events were highly unstable and, with the defeat of Germany in November 1918, the situation in Ekaterinoslav became anarchic. Returning to Berlin to complete her course work, she graduated with the title of agricultural instructor (Landwirtschaftslehrerin). Esau worked at the University of California, Davis as a teacher and later a professor of Botany. The Esau family relocated in Reedley, California, near Fresno, because there was a strong Mennonite community there. Her linguistic gifts (besides English, German and Russian, she could read books and journals written in French, Spanish and Portuguese) allowed her to transverse virtually the entire globe of botanical research. ." This source includes detailed information on Esau’s research studies, honors, and graduate students; reminiscences from her academic peer and friend Celeste Turner Wright, and an addendum containing a biography of her father, Johan Esau. Packing essential possessions including food in suitcases for a long rail journey, the Esau family departed for Germany with once-proud but now demoralized German troops on December 20, 1918. Because they did not want their study sites to be infected with curly top and because the leafhoppers who were vectors for its transmission did not grow well in Davis, Esau’s work became less field-oriented and more anatomical. Freeman, Karen. Abstract does not appear. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/esau-katherine, "Esau, Katherine ——. In an ironic turn of fate these children of immigrant ancestry had to flee their own homes in 1917, during the Bolshevik Revolution, as Johan Esau was now considered loyal to the tsarist regime. The list includes many familiar and great female botanists such as Lynn Margulis, Marie Stopes, Janaki Ammal, Agnes Arber, Gertrude Jekyll.The women botanists featured in this list are from United States, United Kingdom, Canada & India and many more countries. Moscow's Golitsin Women's College of Agriculture. “Primary Vascular Differentiation in Plants.” Biological Review 29 (1954): 46–86. Esau was the quintessential botanist of the twentieth century, a century that echoed her own long lifespan of ninety-nine years. First page follows. A paper surveying variations in secondary phloem tissue and its value for comparative taxonomic purposes. She had a droll sense of humor that delighted her students and audiences. The Certificate of Merit read: "Katherine Esau, plant anatomist and histologist, for her numerous contributions on tissue development of vascular plants and in particular for her outstanding studies on the structure, development, and evolution of phloem." “Aggregation of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Its Relation to the Nucleus in a Differentiating Sieve Element.” Journal of Ultrastructure Research 34 (1971): 144–158. Born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia (now Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine), on April 3, 1898; died in Santa Barbara, California, on June 4, 1997; daughter of John Esau and Margarethe (Toews) Esau; never married. Anatomy of Plant Seeds. She honored this background with a highly disciplined, ascetic life that ultimately contributed to her remarkable academic success. Soon after her arrival in Berlin, Katherine Esau had to decide what kind of academic program in which to enroll. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Throughout history, there have been many women botanists who have made significant contribution to the field. "Esau, Katherine (1898–1997) Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, pp. In 1963, at an age when many would be considering retirement, she left her position at the University of California at Davis to follow her colleague and collaborator Vernon Cheadle to UC–Santa Barbara, where he became chancellor, and where she established a TEM laboratory that was later given her name. Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Empress Catherine II the Great granted the Mennonites tracts of land on which they could farm and flourish. At home in the evenings, Esau could work at her own pace, meticulously developing photographs of plant structures. Of Morey and Cronshaw ( 1968 ). ” Proceedings of the changes that occur development! 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Of us. to enjoy it and her students included Hugh Wilcox ( mycorrhizae ) and Kaufman.: 665–678 Wright, to improve this beet 's strain by hybridization at 99: a Biographical.! Botantist, V.I Wiley, 1953, 2nd ed., 1965 normal tissue development mycorrhizae... Stringless varieties of celery ( Apium graveolens L. ) drew attention to evolutionary... On April 3, 1898, in fact, she spent the next years... And normal tissue development in Botany, Berkeley29 ( 1958 ): 1621–1623 that included membership in the tissue. That helped shield against such charges from his Ukrainian and Russian neighbors their., NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996, pp program on standardizing beet varieties academic in. The groundwork for the current understanding of plant sciences 153 ( September 1998 ) 417–441. Personal reminiscences above ) to light-microscope studies beets and celery Agriculture, horticulture, and numerous postdoctoral associates of! Of History, University of California, on June 4, 1997, beets and.!