The English word "magic" is derived from the Magi, the Persian priest magicians. These outstanding scholars are among the many whose names will forever shine in the history of medicine and science and will always be revered by the Iranian people. This led to the ancient men in Persia coming up with a rather unique way to store the ice made in winter to be used in … This period and its peoples is vastly overlooked in the Western world. ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. 165 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5FECC63BD3C9944F83194D7D33BCF1CE>]/Index[101 85]/Info 100 0 R/Length 246/Prev 563872/Root 102 0 R/Size 186/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Khayyam (1048-1131 AD) was a renowned astronomer who contributed to mathematics and calendar reform. Your problem's nothing a little "Nedicine" won't fix... FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson. endstream endobj startxref Disclaimer: Therefore, the medicine of the body consists of keeping the body in good health and re-establishing balance and the medicine of the soul involves curing the body and preserving it from sin. Among the torchbearers of ancient Persia's scientific heritage are Mohammad Zakaria Razi, Abu Nasr Farabi, Omar Khayyam and Avicenna, who used this knowledge to make further discoveries of benefit to all humankind. During the Achaemenid era (559-330 BCE), the 21 books of Avesta encompassing 815 chapters were an encyclopedia of science consisting of medicine, astronomy, law, social science, philosophy, general knowledge, logic and biology. This was supplemented by Avicenna's extensive medical experiences. The Persians had mastered the technique of building and using the yakhchalby 400 BC. Among them, Persia was one of the oldest civilizations in history, and dates back to about 10000 years ago (1). Ahura Mazda, source of al… The best teachers of medicine and astrology were Iranian Magi and Mobeds (Zoroastrian priests) who passed their knowledge on to their pupils from one generation to the next. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Gundishapur scholars and graduates were appointed to important governmental positions. Similar to modern-day pathologist/coroners, their duties included examining the dead, performing autopsies when required, the issuance of burial licenses and ascertaining the cause of death with an eye toward finding cures for future cases. That’s what can happen when people play with fire. Ancient Iranian religion, diverse beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Hotan, China).. posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its Rue was once a popular remedy for earache, easing shaking fits and joint pain; it was also used to disinfect the house. Ancient Iranian had used a variety of anesthetic agents from which Wine (Alcohol) alone or along with Hashish and also other herbal medicines had been considered for causing sleepiness, lethargy, numbness and anesthesia. Ancient Persian physicians believed that good health is the result of the 'right' measure of the elements of humor, and that sickness is the product of their excess or deficiency. Iranians refrained from polluting the four elements. S cience including medicine has a long history in Middle and Near East and goes back to the ancient Mesopotamian period (Beginning with Sumer 3000BC). The age-old school is still a center of knowledge in Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran. These forces of good stood in opposition to the evil spirit of chaos. The medical history of ancient Persia can be divided into three distinct periods. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), a prolific genius, introduced systematic experimentation into the study of physiology, experimental medicine, evidence based medicine, clinical trials, risk factor analysis, the idea of a syndrome and contributed to clinical pharmacology and neuropsychiatry. The origin of herbal medicine predates the development of agriculture and cultivation in Iran, yet some believe that the ancient Persians were the first to document the properties of herbs and to use plants to cure diseases. The Ordibehesht Yasht classifies physicians under five categories: This physician was in charge of the well-being of the city, preventing the spread of contagious diseases by quarantining, keeping the four sacred elements of water, wind, earth and fire free from contamination, and making sure the sanitation of houses was maintained. The roots of this eating habit go back to Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) which is the traditional medicine practised in Iran for over 2000 years. The ancient Persian culture awarded a preponderant importance to the decorative aspect in their art; which they used as resource and vehicle of expression with a deep philosophical meaning about life. They would not bathe or wash dirty objects in flowing water, and urinating or spitting into water was considered a great sin. The structure above the ground was dome-shaped and had a subterranean storage space. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal Although Arabic remains the primary language used for scientific writing in the Islamic world, many scholars have also produced a range of scientific manuscripts and works in the Persian language. The sixth book of Zend-Avesta contains some of the earliest records of the history of ancient Iranian medicine. The history of medicine in Iran is as old and as rich as its civilization. Avestan scriptures did not restrict giving treatment to Mazdeans alone. Ancient Persian physicians believed that good health is the result of the 'right' measure of the elements of humor, and that sickness is the product of their excess or deficiency. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. The Avesta mentions several medicinal herbs including basil, chicory, sweet violet, and peppermint, while Bundahishn cites the names of thirty sacred medicinal plants. The international university, founded in 271 AD by Shahpour I, was a center of learning and study in the fields of science and medicine. During this period, Persian medicine was undoubtedly in contact with Greek medicine. There are many cuneiform tablets from cities as ancient as Uruk (2500 BC). The Vendidad in fact devotes most of the last chapters to medicine. Persia is a hot country and summer can be quite harsh. The existence of hot and cold nature have been traced in many traditional medical theories such as Chinese, Arabic, Greek, Persian, Roman, etc. Using thick, heat-resistant construction materials, the subterranean stor… Medicine and allied sciences were well-developed in this civilization. Avicenna’s Canon brilliantly synthesises Islamic medicine with that of Hippocrates (460 – 370 BC) and Galen (129 – 200 AD). %%EOF The ancient Persian Art. 4800-Year-Old Artificial Eyeball Discovered in Burnt City.LINK. Medical knowledge and practice were advanced for the time, and the ancient Romans made progress in … According to the Zâdspram, a Pahlavi text of the ninth century AD, there are thousands of species of medicinal plants created by Ahura Mazda for the prevention of thousands of sicknesses created by Ahriman and that the best of these plants is haoma (Vedic soma). Medicine. There are also elements of ancient Persian, Mesopotamian and Indian medicine. The university was a gathering place for great scientists and physicians from all civilizations of the ancient world, a breeding ground for ideas and innovations. Persian scientists contributed to the current understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. The minister of health (Iran Dorostbod) was chosen from among the best physicians, and the minister of education (Iran Farhangbod), was an accomplished scholar of philosophy, logic, mathematics or psychology. ����G��"���,E�� The Vendidad tells of three kinds of medicine practiced; medicine by the knife (surgery), medicine by herbs, and medicine by divine words, which according to the sacred text, is the best form of the three. Farabi also known in the West as Alfarabius (872-951 AD), is noted for his contributions to psychology. Iranian traditional medicineis based on the concept of four humours (Khelt), four elements (Onsor), four temperaments (Mizaj) and four “natures” or “qualities” (Tab’)as a healing method. Bangha, extracted from Cannabis Indica seeds, has hallucinatory effects and was used as an anesthetic. In this way physicians were taught to treat any and all patients, whether friend or foe. %PDF-1.3 %���� The Academy of Gondishapur was established in the 3rd century AD under the rule of Sassanid kings and continued its scholarly activities up to four centuries after Islam came to Iran. Referring to a foreign physician when a Persian one was at hand was considered a sin, and a physician's fee for service was based on the patient's income while the fee for treating a priest was his pious blessing. Ancient Persian physicians believed that good health is the result of the 'right' measure of the elements of humor, and that sickness is the product of their excess or deficiency. Many modern-day Iranian herbalists use reference books inherited from generations past, and still prescribe plants such as Borage, Sweet Marjoram, Fenugreek and Chicory as treatment. Physicians were taught to treat and cure three non-Mazdean patients before receiving permission to treat any and patients... 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