The Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular. [47] Emporion contained a mixed population of Greek colonists and Iberian natives, and although Livy and Strabo assert that they lived in different quarters, these two groups were eventually integrated. The Mahabharata compliments them as "the all-knowing Yavanas" (sarvajñā yavanā); e.g., "The Yavanas, O king, are all-knowing; the Suras are particularly so. His descendant, Attalus I, defeated the invading Galatians and proclaimed himself an independent king. After Alexander's death he was defeated by Eumenes and crucified in 322 BC, but his son, Ariarathes II managed to regain the throne and maintain his autonomy against the warring Diadochi. Pyrrhus defeated the Romans in the Battle of Heraclea and at the Battle of Asculum. "Hellenistic" is distinguished from "Hellenic" in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. Arsaces II sued for peace and became a vassal of the Seleucids. Meleager and the infantry supported the candidacy of Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus, while Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, supported waiting until the birth of Alexander's child by Roxana. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! He also brought Persian and other non-Greek peoples into his military and even the elite cavalry units of the companion cavalry. The end of Antigonid Macedon came when Philip V's son, Perseus, was defeated and captured by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). The death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.. marked the beginning of a new stage in world history. Following division of Alexander's empire, Seleucus I Nicator received Babylonia. Settlements such as Ai-Khanoum, on trade routes, allowed Greek culture to mix and spread. Updates? Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 92. Prag & Quinn (editors). Attalus severely defeated the Gauls, forcing them to confine themselves to Galatia. Soon, however, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered, and assumed full control. By the time of Mithridates VI Eupator, Greek was the official language of the kingdom, though Anatolian languages continued to be spoken. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). Shortly afterwards, Rome became involved in Sicily, fighting against the Carthaginians in the First Punic War. Antigonus and Demetrius now proclaimed themselves joint kings in succession to Alexander. It can be argued that some of the changes across the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's conquests and during the rule of the Diadochi would have occurred without the influence of Greek rule. Pliny reports that Hipparchus produced the first systematic star catalog after he observed a new star (it is uncertain whether this was a nova or a comet) and wished to preserve astronomical record of the stars, so that other new stars could be discovered. Ptolemy was killed when Macedon was invaded by Gauls in 279 BC—his head stuck on a spear—and the country fell into anarchy. A pretext for war was provided by Philip's refusal to end his war with Attalid Pergamum and Rhodes, both Roman allies. In 191 BC, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio routed him at Thermopylae and obliged him to withdraw to Asia. As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after Hannibal had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC) during the Second Punic War. This book goes through the first century "CE" without getting sidetracked into the life of Jesus. Euclid developed proofs for the Pythagorean Theorem, for the infinitude of primes, and worked on the five Platonic solids. This distinction is remarked upon in William M. Ramsay (revised by Mark W. Wilson). The major literary product of this cultural syncretism is the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koiné Greek. In the new, cosmopolitan ideology that followed Alexander’s conquests, the old nationalistic and ethnic boundaries had broken down and the problem of religious and social identity had become acute. The Hellenistic Era was a period of Ancient Greece characterized by the expansion of Greek culture across the Mediterranean and the challenging of Classical Era artistic traditions. Of art created [ 124 ] India and Afghanistan and young Alexander in 310, soon after Antigonus had tried... Trade relations with the past and its seemingly lost glories then went to war with Ptolemy, defeating his at! 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