Due to the location of Sri Lanka, within the tropics between 5° 55' to 9° 51' North latitude and between 79° 42' to 81° 53' East longitude, the climate of the island could be characterized as tropical. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Af. The mean temperature varies from a chilly low of 16ºC in Nuwara - Eliya in the Central Highlands, where even frosting might occur for several days in the winter, to a high of 32oC in Trincomalee on the northeast coast. The largest river is the Mahaweli Ł Land Area : 62705 Km . ����RH=ЃLi$�'��k@� ����� ���)��*�6c}�N.o��%��s�2�g��x�q�ےi�;�2ڠ�����H�10���\��u�8��8��kc!�ƻL>���Ҍ@�` kU� The dry zone covers a large extent compare to wet and intermediate zones and it is very much heterogeneous in the climatic and edaphic conditions, and biotic s tresses. <<71992EDE8AAE8549B87DEFF3E1458C4B>]>> Data from GHCN version 2.0 of monthly precipitation from 1930 - 2000 of 15 gauging stations in Sri Lanka were used in this study. ‘dry’ , ‘intermediate’ and the ‘wet zone’ (Figure 1), based on seasonal rainfall. English: Sri Lanka map of Köppen climate classification. Ł Coastal Area : 1660 Km. Cercariae of trematodes in freshwater snails were studied in 1694 snails collected from rivers and streams in three climatic zones of Sri Lanka during 2005 to 2008. Ł Inland water : 2905 Km. A coastal belt surrounds the island, consisting of scenic sandy beaches and lagoons. x�b```b``>��$�@(� Climatic zones (dry, intermediate and wet zones) of Sri Lanka, arbitrarily demarcated based on the annual rainfall. Temperature and precipitation could be singled out as the two most important climatic factors of the island. The following articles are merged in Scholar. H�t��N�0��~�9�!�q�J4A�Bw�uK u+'���m)H9xw|X3�x��8��w8&�iU�q��@ �>ݲ�f��z�8q�G�T Climate; Vegetation; Daily Life; Culture; Animals; Bibliography; Natural Vegetation Sri Lanka's natural vegetation takes up a third of the islands land area. On rainfall distribution, Sri Lanka has traditionally been classified into three climatic zones viz; the Wet Zone, Dry Zone and Intermediate Zone. Select a destination to see the climate guide for all months of the year. Author: Ali Zifan (Enhanced, modified, and vectorized). Sri Lanka's climate includes tropical monsoons: the northeast monsoon (December to March), and the southwest monsoon (June to October). %%EOF startxref Climatic Zones for Stability Studies Know different climatic zones by ICH in the world for stability conditions including Temperate, Mediterranean / subtropical, Hot dry, Hot humid / tropical and hot & higher humidity zones. Existing Passive Cooling Techniques in Bioclimatic Charts. Data from GHCN version 2.0 of monthly precipitation from 1930 - 2000 of 15 gauging stations in Sri Lanka were used in this study. The Wet Zone covers the south-western region including the central hill country and receives relatively high mean annual … � 479 0 obj <> endobj Three zones can be divided by its distinguished elevation: the central highland, the plains, and the coastal belt. Best beaches line along the southern coast, southwestern coast and eastern coast. Due to location slightly North (6-10o) of the Equator in the Indian Ocean, the climate of Sri-Lanka is tropical, is relatively wet, and has two seasons. Colombo climate summary The Colombo lies on 12m above sea level The climate here is tropical. Then the passive cooling techniques which extend the comfort zone, for different climatic zones in Sri Lanka are identified and plotted. sprawling over the area of 65,525 Sq. xref The central part of the southern half of the island is mountainous with heights more then 2.5 Km. Climate Change Secretariat Sri Lanka 2. Sri Lanka experiences a typical bi-modal rainfall. Most of Sri Lanka's vegetation has been heavily depleted by deforestation. The Sri Lankan Relict Ant in Aneuretinae has many records in the wet zone and two records in the intermediate zone. The coastal areas are cooled by sea breezes. The average rainfall patterns during each monsoon seasons are showed in the figure 1. On rainfall distribution, Sri Lanka has traditionally been classified into three climatic zones viz; the Wet Zone, Dry Zone and Intermediate Zone. Its terrain is mostly low, flat to rolling plain, with mountains in the south-central interior. Sri Lanka with its tear-dropped shape is dominated by the astonishingly varied features of topography, making it one of the most scenic places in the world. Annual Weather Averages in Kandy Based on weather reports collected during 2005–2015. The climax vegetation in most of the country is forest. Ł Total Area: 65610 Km. Climate (Averages) Time Zone ; DST Changes; Sun & Moon . Average Temperature In: Evans A, Jinapala K (eds) Proceedings of the national conference on water, food security and climate change in Sri Lanka, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, 9–11 June 2009, pp 147–156 Google Scholar The rainfall in Colombo is significant, with precipitation even during the driest month. Samples were collected representing all the agro-climatic zones in Sri Lanka according to the availability. x�bbJa`b``Ń3� ���ţ�A i�� I focus here on the OSFs of the Wet Zone because Sri Lanka’s rich and fascinating endemic biota (fauna and flora) is overwhelmingly concentrated in this zone. In Sri Lanka’s First National Communication of 27 October 2000, it is noted that to effectively respond to anticipated climatic changes the existing adaptation measures need to be extended and action needs to be taken in other areas. As for monsoons north-east monsoon brings rain in the northern and eastern regions in December and January while the western, southern and central regions of the island get rain from May to July due to the south west monsoon. The highest point is Pidurutalagala at 2,524.13 m (8,281.3 ft). Location of Sri Lanka. 0000002682 00000 n Samples were collected representing all the agro-climatic zones in Sri Lanka according to the availability. Fernando, MEKK and Amerasekara, DABN and Amarasingha, RK and Suriyagoda, LDB and Marambe, B and Galagedara, LW and Silva, GLLP and Punyawardena, R and Parsons, D and Meinke, H, Validation of APSIM for long duration rice varieties in different agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka, Proceedings of the 17th Australian Society of Agronomy Conference, 20-24 September 2015, Hobart, Australia, pp. Geography 0000001235 00000 n Sun & Moon Today ; Sunrise & Sunset ; Moonrise & Moonset ; Moon Phases ; Eclipses ; Night Sky ; Weather Today Weather Hourly 14 Day Forecast Yesterday/Past Weather Climate (Averages) Currently: 86 °F. The island has 6.4 million hectares of total land area with a population of 18.1 million people. At higher elevations they change to montane rain forests. The nation is also further subdi-vided into 25 administrative districts, each having its own unit to promote agriculture, especially crop pro-duction. Groundwaters in these three zones are extracted mainly for drinking and irrigation from metamorphic hard rock aquifers and saprolite developed on metamorphic rocks. Historical and predicted rainfall records and spatial interpolation of temporal trends were analyzed to identify its impact on major climatic zones of Sri Lanka. The longest river of Sri Lanka is the Mahaweli Ganga with its length of 335 kilometers. �N� According to the spatial distribution of annual rainfall, Sri Lanka can be divided in to 3 major climatic zones as Wet zone (rainfall >2500mm), Dry zone (Rainfall<1750) and Intermediate zone (2500mm2500mm), Dry … Shapefiles of Sri Lankan climatic zones to be used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. In the higher regions of the island the forests are less dense, separated by grasslands. Topography. The climax vegetation in most of the country is forest. Sri Lanka is a tropical country with a year-round hot climate, moderated by oceanic winds. impact on major climatic zones of Sri Lanka. intermonsoon. impact on major climatic zones of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is characterized by well-demarcated climatic zones based on the rainfall pattern known as wet zone, dry zone and intermediate zone. Both these are very similar to those of India’s Western Ghats. The news that climate change will affect Sri Lanka’s weather will surprise very few these days. Best beaches line along the southern coast, southwestern coast and eastern coast. From May to October, the winds over Sri-Lanka are Westerly to North-Westerly (i.e winds come from the west).      climatesec@gmail.com. More than 60% of the 306 tree species that are endemic to Sri Lanka are found only in the lowland rainforests and some more are shared with montane and dry zone forests. At present, Most of the hazards found in Sri Lanka are increasingly turning into disasters due to unfavourable human activities. The Sri Lanka-China Logistics and Industrial Zone, in the Hambantota region, is being developed primarily by Chinese investors and is expected to involve $5bn in funding, committed over a three- to five-year period. The best time to visit Sri Lanka depends on where you go. Sri Lanka’s climate is tropical and consists of distinct wet and dry seasons. Several hazards such as droughts, floods, earth slips, cyclones, lightning, tsunamis and earth quakes are some examples for such instances. %PDF-1.4 %���� Sri Lanka is characterized by well-demarcated climatic zones based on the rainfall pattern known as wet zone, dry zone and intermediate zone. endstream endobj 480 0 obj<>/Outlines 86 0 R/Metadata 110 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 106 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/StructTreeRoot 112 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20090114120936)/PageLabels 104 0 R>> endobj 481 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 482 0 obj<> endobj 483 0 obj<> endobj 484 0 obj<> endobj 485 0 obj<>stream 2.4 Climate. While from December to March, the winds over Sri-Lanka are North-Easterly. In Sri Lanka, formerly Ceylon, the climate is tropical, and the weather is hot and humid throughout the year. The average annual temperature is 27.0 °C | 80.6 °F in Colombo. Date: 20 February 2016: Source: Derived from World Köppen Classification (with authors).svg. All information on the ant subfamilies, genera and species (where possible) from the surveys was combined to report the distribution of each of them in the four climatic zones of Sri Lanka. The river supplies the most important water necessity for the irrigation system in the northeast region in which natural rainfalls are deficient. Colombo, Sri Lanka's largest city (6° 55′ N, 79° 51′ E) has a warm, humid climate (Köppen-Geiger classification = Af − Tropical Rainforest Climate), with no seasonal differences in temperature or moistness and year-round rainfall. Duplicate citations. The best time to visit the southwest region of Sri Lanka During this time, the weather is warm; the city of Galle on the southwestern tip enjoys an average high of 29°C (84°F) for example. Sri Lanka. It has been billed as a special economic zone and is expected to generate an estimated 100,000 jobs. In very generalized terms Sri Lanka's climate is tropical humid. • 3 climatic zones – Dry zone, Intermediate zone & Wet zone Climatic zones of Sri Lanka It lies between 6 - 10 of north latitude and between  80 - 82 of east longitude. The island is traditionally divided into three climatic zones viz. The climate of Sri Lanka could be characterized as tropical and shows clear boundaries of dry and wet zones and an intermediate climatic zone. Climate Change and Sri Lanka Ajith Silva. This report presents the development of the bioclimatic chart for Sri Lanka. 1). These different climatic zones constitute a unique natural feature of the country. The climate of Sri Lanka could be characterized as tropical and shows clear boundaries of dry and wet zones and an intermediate climatic zone. This generalization, however, masks the variety and the range of climatic patterns found on the island. Two sites belonging to each of the three climatic zones of Sri Lanka (dry, intermediate, wet) encompassing the coconut triangle (Fig. Natural Vegetation Sri Lanka's natural vegetation takes up a third of the islands land area. Most Amazing Climatic Changes Within 2-hour Drives in Sri Lanka by Team Travel Wagon on October 4, 2020 7:23 pm on October 4, 2020 As you might already know, Sri Lanka is a splendid island surrounded by blue mighty waves of the Indian Ocean. km. Lanka covers a wide range of soil types and climatic zones, on the basis of which the island is divided into several agrodimatic zones (Fig. Moisture and total carbohydrate contents of … The average yearly temperature in Sri Lanka as a whole ranges from 28 to 32oC. 0000001514 00000 n Sri Lanka lies between 5 55' and 9 55' North latitude and 79 41' and 81 54' East longitude. Scattered clouds. The Country‐ An i. sland nation. Three zones can be divided by its distinguished elevation: the central highland, the plains, and the coastal belt. Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. Each estate has an average tree density of 64 palms per acre. (Weather station: Kandy, Sri Lanka). Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean, located to the south of Indian Subcontinent. See more current weather × Annual Weather Averages in Kandy. Director/ Policy and Planning. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. trailer 0000002605 00000 n The Wet Zone covers the south-western region including the central hill country and receives relatively high mean annual rainfall over 2,500 mm without pronounced dry periods. First Inter-monsoon Season (March – April)– Thunderstorm type rainfall with warm and uncomfortable conditions Southwest-Monsoon Season (May – September)– The warm season is eased away by the windy weather during this particular monsoon season. A coastal belt surrounds the island, consisting of scenic sandy beaches and lagoons. The southwest region and the central hills of Sri Lanka have the most luxuriant forest cover. Geochemical characteristics of groundwater in different climatic zones of Sri Lanka Rains can be expected during any time of the day Second Inter-monsoon Season (October – No… Lying in the equatorial and tropical zone, Sri Lanka is influenced by the monsoons, allowing four distinct seasons. Climate There are two distinct climatic zones in Bright, sunny warm days are the rule and are common even during the height of the monsoon. 2, Fig. Based on mean annual rainfall, Sri Lanka has three climatic zones: wet (>2500mm mean annual rainfall), intermediate(1750–2500mm mean annual rainfall) and dry zone (<1750mm mean annual rainfall) (Punyawar-dena et al., 2003). 0000000509 00000 n Twenty two among 64 ant genera were recorded from the four climatic zones; 42 genera were found in a single zone or two or three zones. It has a maximum length of 432 km (Devundara to Point Peduru) and maximum breadth 224 km (Colombo - Sangamankanda) . represent 3 agro-climatic zones, wet, dry and inter-mediate zones of Sri Lanka (Table 1).The current study focuses on the effect of climatic factors on dengue incidence and outbreaks in dif- ferent agro-climatic zones using data for selected districts situated in these agro-climatic zones. However, a recent study1 projecting rainfall distribution patterns in Sri Lanka for 2050 warns that climatic zones could shift. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. Below are average maximum temperatures at popular destinations in Sri Lanka for next month - December. maximum length is 437 km and width is 225 km. 488 0 obj<>stream 0000003099 00000 n Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. climatic zones of Sri Lanka is provided in this article. In the northeast and the southwest, the coasts cut across the stratification of crystalline rocks, cliffs, bays, and offshore islands, creating one of the world's best natural harbors at Trincomalee on the northeastern coast and a smaller rock harbor at Galle on the southwestern coast. The dry zone of Sri Lanka encompasses 59% of the total land area of the country, ergo, the most extensive forest cover. O In the four rows A, B, C and D in the above table, four climatic zones of Sri Lanka and data about their temperature, rainfall and vegetation are given. Asia. As a field biologist, who for much of the last three decades has explored the forests of these two climatic zones, I have seen or carried out field research in a substantial number of OSFs. 0 There are 103 natural river basins in Sri Lanka, with a total length of about 4,500km (UNESCO and MoAIMD 2006). The country is located just north of the equator. Data from GHCN version 2.0 of monthly precipitation from 1930 - 2000 of 15 gauging stations in Sri Lanka were used in this study. Climatic zones of Sri Lanka Average temperature Dry zone 028 C Intermediate zone 024 - 26 C Wet zone 24 0 C Average Rainfall Dry zone < 1,750 mm Intermediate zone 1,750 - 2,500 mm Wet zone > … The developed bioclimatic chart is aimed to be evaluated against different climatic conditions of the country. 3 and Table 1) were considered in this study. Groundwaters in these three zones are extracted mainly for drinking and irrigation from metamorphic hard rock aquifers and saprolite developed on metamorphic rocks. �F�[��_�}(*�"Gtl����S�6�l��,�ƭ��W�46��������=(⤲"A�(���¸%w���zWwu���}�{������nf!V�U��$��2I�ѤBG��4R�YJ�:$�. Senaratne A, Wickramasinghe K (2010) Climate change, local institutions and adaptation experience: the village tank farming community in dry zone Sri Lanka. ‪Rajarata University of Sri Lanka‬ - ‪Cited by 180‬ - ‪Irrigation and Water Management‬ - ‪Crop and Environmental Modelling‬ - ‪Climate change‬ Citations per year. Annual and four temporal seasons: Southwest monsoon (SWM), Northeast monsoon (NEM), First Inter-monsoon (FIM) and Second Inter-monsoon (SIM) were used for the analysis. Sri Lanka, known as Ceylon until 1972, is an island nation located off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia, positioned between latitudes 5° and 10°N and longitudes 79° and 82°E (Figure 1). Climatic zones of Sri Lanka Average temperature Dry zone →28 0C Intermediate zone →24 - 26 0C Wet zone →24 0C Average Rainfall Dry zone →< 1,750 mm Intermediate zone →1,750-2,500 mm Wet zone →> 2,500 mm. 2. Monsoons Based on … Generally speaking, the coastal areas of Sri Lanka enjoy temperatures averaging 28°C (82°F) while the upland areas are cooler and more temperate, with a yearly average around 16-20°C (60-68°F). ��:���.`��$���c�=7�Eî��.v0jM�Sp��>��N��D��-�֝���혛����8�Q�B�G�P�&�k�V�H�id͵���(��g4�E���� �G��;�d��"u���ʖ�{��BU;���YW�d"����œsܫN�U�L�|�q.�&C�/��T��ǵ+2��e>��u,x*�.|���A��A��5���!����QP��d� �7- (`ll&Al �(`� b �B fˀH2 These six sites were selected based on the availability of long-term crop production data and meteorological data. Merged citations. intermonsoon. 0000001049 00000 n Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Most of the rivers are short and frequently interrupted by the discontinuities of terrain. 0000002358 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000001728 00000 n Tropical rainforests are characterised by a multi-storeyed vegetation where the crowns of domin… They have rain during the southwest monsoon and constitutes the lowland rain forests up to an elevation about 900 meters. The upper reach of the river is wild and non-navigable while the lower reaches are prone to the seasonal flooding. In the higher km. Background Samples of 226 new improved and 21 indigenous rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties were collected from the rice fields in three climatic zones of Sri Lanka and concentrations of 18 trace elements (Li, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb and Bi) were measured giving particular emphasis on Se, Cd and As using ICP-MS. Sri Lanka’s lowland rainforests covering 2.1% of the land area harbour many endemic and threatened species. However the average Due to its location in the equatorial and tropical zones, Sri Lanka has been influenced by the monsoons which consist of four very distinctive seasons. (within 1 km of the coast), Sri Lanka’s coastal zones face serious threat from sea-level rise caused by climate change, which could amplify existing hazards from tsunamis and cyclones. endstream endobj 487 0 obj<>/Size 479/Type/XRef>>stream In the northwest, Mannar Island which is joined with the mainland by a bridge is almost connected to the southern India by a long chain of sandbanks and islets called Adam's Bridge. The southern half of the country Sun & Moon to generate an estimated 100,000 jobs are natural. Generalization, however, a recent study1 projecting rainfall distribution patterns in Sri Lanka climatic zone Indian.! Dst Changes ; Sun & Moon Sangamankanda ) 2.1 % of the hazards found in Sri could... Threshold totals rainfall pattern known as wet zone and intermediate zone from May to October the! 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