Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change induced disasters such as drought, epidemics, flood, conflict, earthquake, pests, wildfire and landslide, amongst others. When a river becomes swollen because of larger or longer flow than normal, water will exceed the banks and overwhelm methods of flood preparation causing floods. National Weather Service. (See Drought in Eastern Ethiopia on the Earth Observatory. The floods also destroyed crops, cut off transport, and killed three people, said the United Nations. Where and why do floods occur in Ethiopia? Flooding causes many problems, including the erosion of the top-most layer of soil (which is often the most fertile), property damaged, downstream increases in sediment, increase of fertilizer used in agriculture (due to loss of most nutrient-rich topsoil), and more pollution downstream (due to applied fertilizers upstream). (2006) Natural Hazards: Earth’s Processes a Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes. Land How regional weather systems effect flooding in Ethiopia. The flooding comes despite Ethiopia starting to fill the reservoir behind a giant new dam upstream on the Blue Nile in July. Many people live on floodplains despite the high hazard potential. The loss of vegetation cover (by deforestation, drought, or other natural causes), loose soil, urbanization, land covered by impervious surfaces, and steep slopes are the main factors that affect the amount of soil erosion and thus increase the damage caused by flooding. BY ELIZABETH EQUBAY – Flooding around Libo Kemkem area of Amhara region of Ethiopia today kills two people, state broadcaster reported.. Impervious surfaces can increase flood damages by reducing the lands potential to absorb some of the flood waters, instead water will flow off the surface and continue without impediments, moving more quickly than it otherwise would. Bare or sparsely vegetated ground is tan. Climate Dynamics, 43, 1645-1660. Record floods cause deaths and widespread damage in Sudan August 28, 2020 September 4, 2020 Ethiopian Monitor #flood , #Nile river , #Sudan KHARTOUM – Floodwaters in Sudan have reached the highest levels on record, killing dozens of people, destroying thousands of homes and encroaching on some neighborhoods of the capital Khartoum. The water cycle circulates particles of H2O throughout the earth, and flooding is one of the byproducts. Similarly, at least 20,000 flood-affected people were evacuated in Haro Hadi Town (since 1 September) as heavy summer rains continue to cause flooding in East Shewa zone in southern Ethiopia. While the rains caused destructive flooding, they may also have been beneficial. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Integrated Regional Information Networks. Addis Abeba, Oct. 09/2019 –Areas along the Baro River bed flooded following heavy rains, 353 households displaced On 2 October, heavy rainfall in Gambella Town has led to the overflow of Baro River, flooding areas along the river bed. flooding is limited to the lowland flat parts of the country. Another way to increase the risk of floods is to increase the amount of impervious surfaces in flood-prone areas. Erosion over a long period can create large floodplains adjacent to rivers because sediment that has been eroded away eventually settles creating a flat area on either side of a stream. A picture posted by OWS Development Fund is which is operating in Somali Regional State, show the devastation of recent flooding. Key factors include the general northward trend of decreasing atmospheric moisture, proximity to oceanic moisture sources such as the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea, and orientation of topographic features relative to directions of moisture flow (the high plateau and the mountains along the Rift Valley). There are three main seasons called the Kiremt (rainy season from June to September), Belg (light or sporadic rains from March to May), and Bega (dry season from October to February). On 5 August 2006, torrential rains caused the Dechatu River to burst its banks, causing serious flash flooding in the region of Dire Dawa. However, intense rainfall in the highlands causes flooding of settlements in a number of river basins. Some 500,000 people were so far affected, including some 300,000 displaced.” Seasonal rains continued to increase in most parts of East Africa during the fourth week of April 2020, resulting in a significant increase in rainfall that caused the deadly floods in Ethiopia … "I could hear people, perhaps my neighbors, screaming for help, but I could only fight for the survival of my family," Ahmed Sabrie, a … The flooding is caused by overflow of Reb River and its subsidiaries, according to EBC report. Some floods occur abruptly and recede quickly whereas others take several days or even months to form and to recede because of var… The 2020 East Africa floods were a natural disaster in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti and Tanzania, affecting at least 700,000 people.They began when excessive rains began falling in March, leading to massive flooding and landslides. More than 580,000 people have been displaced by the flooding in Somalia, according to the most recent statistics from the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA). A project done for GEOG 2137 at GWU, by Lotanna Obodozie, LJ Conley, Frankie De Cristofaro, and Alex Rodgers. Heavy Rains during August Cause Massive Floods in Ethiopia Ethiopia has appealed for millions of dollars in emergency relief for the country’s worst flooding in decades as hundreds of people have been killed and tens of thousands left homeless caused by flash … Speaking to Xinhua, Muferiat Kamil, Ethiopia Minister of Peace, said various parts of Ethiopia in recent weeks have experienced floods caused by rainfall levels that haven’t been seen for more than 30 years. In many river systems of Ethiopia, flood can cause a range of impacts and risks such as pollution of drinking water, death and injury, distraction of houses and lively hood, displacement, and distraction of the community and wildlife. The short rainy season in southeastern Ethiopia typically runs from October to January. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2003/circ1245/. Trends and Spatial Distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Clouds are light blue. Ethiopia: Thousands displaced by floods in Somali region. Flat areas will lack precipitation, even if they are geographically near the moisture sources, because the absence of topographic relief in these areas will not experience as much precipitation and therefore less flooding. According to state disaster… The images are enhanced with infrared light to make water stand out from the surrounding landscape. After circulating through the oceans, evaporating to the sky, condensing into clouds, and precipitating to land, water drains into streams and flows back to the ocean. Most precipitation will occur on the windward side of the mountain ranges (or the side that is facing the oncoming wind). Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa, at a latitude of 9 degrees North and 38 degrees East in longitude between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and the western Indian Ocean. Importance of the Nile River’s origins in Ethiopia, Weather systems affecting Ethiopian rainy seasons, Impact of El Nino events and Sea Surface Temperatures on rain in Ethiopia, Droughts and desert effects on floods in Ethiopia, Importance of the Nile River’s origins in Ethiopia, http://www.meteo-ethiopia.net/climate.htm. Retrieved from http://www.geoforcxc.com/water/river-features/. The slope of a drainage basin (the total area of land where water flows into an individual stream) will determine how water will interact with the river in terms of erosion and flooding. Floods in the US: Where they happen and why? US Geological Survey Circular, 1245. This study focused on finding out flood causative factors and the impacts of flooding on the socio-economic sectors of Dire Dawa. The best way to avoid this extremely common natural hazard is by not building and settling on floodplains. Flooding also destroys crops and can wipe away trees and other important structures on land. However the effects of this increased precipitation can be felt far away as the flood waters can reach distant areas that are low lying and these low-lying areas will also experience a more disastrous effect, especially where many people live close to the banks of rivers in a valley. Seasonal Flooding Vulnerability, Cause, Impact and Coping Strategies in Southern Ethiopia Urban Areas - Geography - Academic Paper 2012 - ebook 29.99 € - GRIN Ethiopia’s climate is similar to other countries in Eastern Africa in that it experiences two main rainy seasons: a period of long rains between June and September, and a season of short rains from March to May. This study was conducted in the Dire Dawa city watershed with the aims of assessing flood causing factors and to propose landscape based flood mitigation strategies. The Belg is important for the lowlands in the south and southeast, because this is the main source of water for this region. Ironically, flooding is common in areas that are prone to drought. Retrieved from http://www.meteo-ethiopia.net/climate.htm, How regional weather systems effect flooding in Ethiopia. Local topology is the main determining factor for rivers. The movement of storms coupled with location relative to sources of moisture (such as oceans) and the orientation of mountains effect where rain will fall, most often occurring when mountains are perpendicular to the direction of cloud and storm movement. At the end of October, the Famine Early Warning System Network had forecast a weak rainy season (averaged over the entire three to four month period) for the region, which would lead to food shortages. ADDIS ABABA- (ENA) Unprecedented flood caused by the overflow of Awash River has displaced more than 144,000 persons and caused over 5 billion Birr damage in Afar Regional State. Studies show that the location of many large floods is related to a unique combination of regional climatology, topography, and basin size. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2003/circ1245/. Gambella region is one of the regional states in Ethiopia that has been hit particularly hard by floods. Dire Dawa, the second largest city of Ethiopia, has been suffering from disastrous floods in its history. The climate varies greatly depending on the topology and orthographic lift causes much of the rainfall to be deposited in the highlands. A long duration or rainfall in a large river watershed or short and heavy precipitation in a small watershed both cause large flows in rivers. Ethiopia is unique as its highlands are one of the three main catchments for the Nile River, making this area extremely important for a huge number of people who depend on the Nile (approximately 10 countries with a total population of 280 million individuals). Bright green vegetation lines the river, while brushes of green accent the arid landscape elsewhere in the scene. The region is prone to cycles of flood and drought. The main cause of these regional seasons is due to the Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) in the Indo-Pacific region, which reaches east to Oceania and west to the Indian Ocean. The biggest factors that determine flood height and size are climate, topography of local land, and basin size. US Geological Survey Circular, 1245. The floods forced more than 52,000 people to leave their homes along the Wabe Shabele and other rivers in the region, said the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Cheung, W. H., Senay, Gabriel B., & Singh, Ashbindu. Heavy rains cause fatal floods in Ethiopia and Somalia, 83,000 people had to be evacuated. The steeper the slope along which a river flows, the affects the flow of water. Meanwhile, heavy summer season (June -September) rains continue to cause flooding in many parts of the country. Ethiopia is in the midst of a rainy season which started in July and is expected to last until mid-September, which occasionally causes landslides and floods in some parts of the East African country. So flooding in Ethiopia affects many people in the region who depend on the Nile River for their livelihoods. Importance of the Nile River’s origins in Ethiopia; Seasons in Ethiopia; Flooding in Ethiopia. General causes of flooding This year's flooding along Awash river was mainly caused by heavy rainfall in the eastern highlands and escarpment areas of North Shewa and Welo and not because of heavy rain in the upper watershed areas (i.e. Pale blue pools along the river are shallow, silt-laden water or muddy ground. One of these is the Awash River Basin located in the Rift Valley and with a surface area of about 113,000 km2, which has the largest level of … (2014) Indo-Pacific Sea Surface temperature influences on failed consecutive rainy seasons over eastern Africa. Heavy rains starting on November 2 pushed several rivers in southeastern Ethiopia over their banks. This can be seen in Ethiopian flatlands to the south, which are closer to large water bodies such as the western Indian Ocean, but the central high plateaus of Ethiopia experience the majority of precipitation and flooding due to the high elevation and mountains in this region. “The flooding was caused as the Awash River overflows and affected 10 out of 17 counties in the region.” There was no word of any deaths. Unusually large rainfall or snowmelt are examples of the weather and climate abnormalities that cause major floods, however human interactions can divert rivers and change the risk of flooding. Costa, Jon E., & O’Connor, Jim E. (2003). About 90% of the sediment for the Nile originates in the Ethiopian highlands and travels the course of the Blue Nile during floods. Flood causes in particular basin size can be pinpointed. Urbanization, and the changing of land use from vegetation to impervious surfaces along streams and rivers increases the hazard posed by floods. The flooding has also caused damage on properties and farms of the farmers who live in the surrounding. upstream of the Koka Reservoir). In small river basins, floods are often the result of intense precipitation due to convective storms. Many people build, work, and live on floodplains (areas adjacent to rivers created by many years of deposited sediment) despite the risk, putting themselves and their livelihoods at risk. Record Floods Cause Deaths And Widespread Damage in Sudan | … International journal of Climatology, 28(13) 1723-1734. Ethiopia is one of the largest countries in East Africa, and its topography has made the country vulnerable to floods and the resulting destruction and damage to life, economics, livelihoods, infrastructure, services, and health systems (18). Heavy rains starting on November 2 pushed several rivers in southeastern Ethiopia over their banks. The short rainy season in southeastern Ethiopia typically runs from October to January. 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