[11] The Romans had allowed Hannibal to become too strong in Spain and now he was able to use it as a base. In fact, it would not be an overstatement to say that the Carthaginians were the favorites to win the war from the beginning, only to falter in the later and more decisive stages. Extensive Use of Intelligence. The Second Punic War-In 226, the Romans pledged to not interfere with anything south of the Ebro River, but after the first punic war, a city named Saguntum, south of the Ebro River, … The rising power of the Barcid family in Spain upset the balance of power between Carthage and Rome and this destabilized the peace that was agreed at the end of the First Punic War. B. C. 334. thatsbloodyy thatsbloodyy 2 hours ago History High School What was the cause of the second punic war? He was accompanied by his Hannibal who was only nine years old. This is even though he had signed a treaty with Rome that allowed the Carthaginians influence south of the Ebro River and Rome assigned a ‘sphere of influence’ north of that river. and associated with the Scipio’s family. After many attacks, his troops stormed and destroyed the city's defenses by attacking them one at a time. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. The war lasted for a whole 17 years … Another was the Carthaginian faction who opposed the peace with Rome attempts to create an alliance with the Celts in the North of Italy. While Hannibal was technically loyal to Carthage, he often acted as an independent sovereign in Iberia. The citizens of Saguntum resisted bravely and they defied Hannibal and his army for long eight months. [6], The Romans had begun to focus more on Spain but after the assassination of Hasdrubal, they became distracted by events elsewhere. Both nations took decisive actions that forced them towards the war. Until the decisive moment arrived, the outcome of the war hung in the balance throughout a number of battles. His account of the Punic Wars is fortunately among these better preserved parts. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the most severe defeat ever suffered by Rome. The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. During Hannibal's assault on Saguntum he suffered heavy losses as he attempted to storm the city’s fortifications and because of the ferocity of the defending Saguntines [9]. What was the cause of the second punic war? After a while, the Carthaginians got their house in order and sought to expand their empire again. You can read John D Clare's blog-post - The Saguntum Outrage and the Causes of the Second Punic War - here. Clearly, the tensions between Rome and Carthage had not been fully settled. There Hamilcar ‘commanded the young Hannibal to lay his hand on the body of the sacrificial victim and to swear that he would never be a friend to Rome. The cause of the Second Punic War is an issue of some great debate. generals of the second punic war . Second Punic War where Hannibal is the primary Carthaginian commander throughout, whereas the Romans had more than a dozen commanders. Hannibal used the manpower and resources of Spain to recruit a massive army, some 90,0000 strong, according to modern historian’s estimates. Polybius is someone who gives a very good account of the events that led to the war, blaming the Carthaginians for causing the war. South of the river Ebro, Sagunto was only sea town (it was Hellenized Iberian city), which did not obeyed to Carthaginians, but it entered into an alliance with Rome. The first was the bitterness and anger of Hamilcar Barca at the end of the First Punic War when he was forced to surrender … The causes of the First Punic War were mainly clashes of economic interests. This war was fought under the command of Hannibal who fought for Carthage while Romans fought under various generals. From here, they established a trade network across the Mediterranean. The war began just twenty-three short years after the First Punic War had ended. This invitation led to tensions with the Carthaginians and ultimately led to the outbreak of the First Punic War. Rome wanted to protect themselves from the threat of Hannibal’s Carthaginian army. After the treaty was signed, the Romans illegally seized the Punic possessions of Sardinia and Corsica. He continued the strategy of Hamilcar and continued to expand the Punic presence in Iberia [3]. [8] Rome was an ally of the city and they had guaranteed the safety and the security of the city. Both nations took decisive actions that forced them towards the war. It was a ferocious struggle and it could have led to the destruction of Rome and this could have changed the course of World History. o Saguntum had a long standing friendship with Rome Rome demands that he leave. He is generally considered one of the greatest generals in history and Rome’s most formidable enemy. Battle of Cannae 216 BC. The treaty that Rome made with Carthage was complicated, and had numerous political results. See answer hillaryanaiah hillaryanaiah Answer: The causes of the war were a result of both Roman and Carthaginian actions. italy, for 17 years, and then carthage, for less than a year. The treaty that Rome made with Carthage was complicated, and had numerous political results. Frustrated at … The Roman Senate responded favorably, and ignored the pledge. Task. This allowed Hannibal to consolidate his position in Spain. what was the cause of the second punic war. We have other ancient writers who did not accept his reasoning of the matter such as Cicero who wrote “The siege of Saguntum was the cause of the second Punic war, which Hannibal carried on against our ancestors”. Hamilcar was a brilliant leader and strategist and he soon began to conquer extensive territories in Spain. This raises a very large question on the part of Polybius. To set the scene, the First and Second Punic Wars, as well as the period between the wars, are discussed. The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. The Start of the Second Punic War 218 BC. They were initially invited into Sicily by the Greeks, who were fearful of the Carthaginians. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to examine the causes of the Second Punic War as given by two prominent ancient historians, Polybius and Livy, the key sources for the modern reader studying the conflict. (London: Routledge, 2003), p 45, Rich, John. what was the cause of the second punic war. Polybius outlines three clear causes of the Second Punic war. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Scipio defeated the remaining Carthaginian forces in Spain, which placed Spain under Roman control. The story of the conflict is well known, such an event as his heroic crossing of the Alps has become legendary. Leaving 20,000 troops with his brother Hasdrubal, Hannibal went farther north on the Rhone River than the Romans … The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. [14], Most of the leadership in Carthage was opposed to another war with Rome and tried to block Hannibal’s strategy. The North Africans had a small foothold in Spain and Hamilcar organized an expedition to the area. They became embroiled in a war in Illyria [7]. (1952). With Hannibal, these Gallic tribes obtained the control of Placent… The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Among the three Punic Wars, the second war can be termed as the bloodiest with maximum number of battles. who won the second punic war. where was the second punic war fought. Below is a discussion of the origins of the second great war between Carthage and Rome. The causes of the war were a result of both Roman and Carthaginian actions. The Celts with the support of the Carthaginians planned to move south into Roman territory. Causes of the War. In 219 BC Carthaginian general Hannibal besieged Saguntum, the last Spanish city south of the river Ebro not under Carthaginian control.Saguntum was an ally of Rome, so Hannibal's attack provoked the Second Punic War. Task. The Second Pinic War: The Causes Of The Second Punic War 938 Words | 4 Pages. hannibal and scipio. First Punic War (264–241 bce) The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) Second Punic War (218–201 bce) Campaigns in Sicily and Spain; The war in Africa; Third Punic War … This page was last edited on 27 April 2020, at 03:18. This had aroused resentment among many Punic citizens, and Carthage had no hope of resisting Rome at their weakened condition. 67 (1996), p 37, Bickerman, Elias J. However, he continues to explain the reasons for Hannibal’s rage, the First Punic War, which Polybius calls “the most important cause of the subsequent war” (Kagan106, 1975). Hannibal crosses the Ebro. Some historians of the Hannibalian war, when they wish. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. When the inhabitants rejected the offer Hannibal had every adult put to death and enslaved the children. One must consider the reasons for tensions being high enough to cause a second war so soon after the first had ended. Scipio Africanus Conquers Spain 206 BC. They contested the control of Sicily with the Greeks. revenge. Second Punic War - Second Punic War Battles. Second Punic War Cause Hannibal wanted to avenge his father's failures so he took eflephants and a massive army and marched to the Romans over the Alps. The city was a very prosperous trade center and it was strongly fortified. On the other hand, Carthage felt as though they were being undermined by the Romans and took a much more aggressive stand. Supplement, no. The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. Furthermore, the wealth of the city tempted him as he needed to pay his men who were all mercenaries. Less well known, are the causes of the Second Punic War. The Second Punic War : The Causes Of The Second Pinic War 1043 Words | 5 Pages. The Romans feared the Celts ever since. Carthaginian mistake: attempt to reconquer Sardinia Hannibal's younger brother was sent to Carthago to ask for more troops. You can read John D Clare's blog-post - The Saguntum Outrage and the Causes of the Second Punic War - here. It will be argued that the causes of the Second Punic War were Carthage’s intrigues with the Celts, Hannibal’s rivalry with Rome in Spain, and the great Carthaginian’s general thirst for revenge on Rome. This is the second and most important cause of the Second Punic War. This was viewed with alarm in Rome and they were troubled by the revival of the Carthaginians power. The Carthaginians did not control him in Iberia. New Carthage. hannibal and scipio. [18] This was not typical of all or many in the Carthaginian elite. [16] They were populists who could sway public opinion and put pressure on the pro-peace faction to support Hannibal. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa.The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans … Hannibal not only devastated Rome in their military interactions but thrust away Rome’s pride in itself. why did rome win the second punic war. Polybius quotes the treaty after the 1st Punic war twice: The first time he doesn't mention anything about the Roman allies, but he does the second time when he is providing excuses for the Romans. In order to determine who is truthfully to blame for the Second Punic War, each of the causes by both sides must be explored in depth. The immediate cause of the Second Punic War was the decision by Hannibal — the main Carthaginian general at the time, and one of history’s most revered military commanders — to ignore the treaty between Carthage and Rome that “forbade” Carthage from expanding in … He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. After he set out from Spain he crossed the Alps and advanced into Italy where he soon won a series of remarkable victories at the battles of Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and the Battle of Cannae. He was determined like his family to defeat Rome and it became an obsession. Their defeat in the First Punic War saw Carthage stripped of most of its empire, apart from its North Africa territories and an enclave in Spain.[2]. Like the American’s Manifest Destiny in the 1800’s, Rome wanted to unite the world in its civilization, which they believed was the most culture-rich of all the nations. How did the Renaissance influence the Reformation? The army acclaimed Hannibal and he became its commander at the age of 26. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. He wanted to restore the Carthaginian Empire and to make it strong again so that it could defend itself against Roman aggression. In 221 BCE Hasdrubal was assassinated by a local tribesman, many believe at the instigation of the Romans. Cause of conflict. Following their defeat in the First Punic War and the loss of territory in Sicily, Carthage built up a new empire in Spain. once again after the First Punic War (264 to 241 BC). This tribe consisted of Insubres and Boii people and formed an alliance with Carthaginians. It seemed that the Barca’s first Hamilcar, then Hasdrubal and finally Hannibal supported a faction in Carthage that wanted a war of ‘national revenge’. Rome had been complacent about the Carthaginians and they adopted a more aggressive stance. The Second Punic War §6: War in Spain §7: Debate about Scipio's invasion of Africa §8: Scipio's bodyguard §9: Carthaginian countermeasures §10: Hasdrubal, Syphax, Massinissa, and Sophonisba §11: Massinissa prepares for war §12: Massinissa's war against Syphax and Carthage. The cause of the Second Punic War is an issue of some great debate. The war on Saguntum was seen by Polybius to be just the first incident in the war. Third Punic War Cause Even after the huge defeats of the first two wars Carthage was still going strong. Ancient historiography could not clearly determine on whose side was responsible for the Punic wars, or what was the direct reason for the outbreak of the conflict. who won the second punic war. Indeed, the Barcid led the city-state into a war that they did not want. That's the most honest answer I can give. Saguntum’s appeal to Rome. The fault for the beginning of the Second Punic War can not be placed on a single nation. Hannibal was determined to avenge the death and defeat of his people in the First Punic War. revenge. The adopted a strategy to contain Hannibal in Spain. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Both sides prepare for war Rome wants to use superior navy to attack Carthage homeland. Hannibal was powerful enough that he could effectively hijack the Carthaginian Senate and to dictate its foreign policy. Garland, Robert. Livy describes the war by saying, “No states, no nations ever met in arms greater in strength or richer in resources” (21.1-2). This war is often simply known as Hannibal’s war. They were great traders and farmers, and soon they had created a great city, and they dominated large tracts of the coast of Northern Africa. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. Carthage was asked to totally evacuate Sicily and the Aegadian Islands, which lay west of it, as well as the small islands that lay between Sicily and Africa. As part of the peace treaty that ended the First Punic War, Carthage could not intervene in the affairs of Italy. Roman envoys visit Hannibal . The Second Punic War: Causes. "Hannibal's Covenant". In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and … Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. If the Carthaginian Senate had been able to control the Barcid, a war between Hannibal and Rome could have been averted. That said, the treaties, while a major reason for the Second Punic War, were not the only cause. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. Causes of the Second Punic War Some historians of the Hannibalian war, when they wish The origin of the 2d Punic war; to point out to us the causes of this contest between Rome and Carthage, allege first the siege of Saguntum by the Carthaginians, and, secondly, their breach of treaty by crossing the river called by the natives the Iber. The personality of Hannibal, his genius, and his hatred of the Romans was crucial in the outbreak of the war. To set the scene, the First and Second Punic Wars, as well as the period between the wars, are discussed. Polybius gives us three events that led to the Second Punic War, and none of these events actually involved Hannibal himself. Roman envoys go to Carthage and declare war. Although Rome’s actions were not directly offensive, they set up a path for Carthaginians with very few options. rome. or in other words, why did it start? Once in Spain is father brought him to an altar. o CAUSES OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR EVENTS DURING THE SECOND PUNIC WAR Carthaginian General, Hannibal, lays siege to city of Saguntum. They were not able to attack Rome because of their advanced technology(siege towers, etc). "[19] Hannibal was bound by this oath and he never wavered from it and he became the Republic’s greatest enemy. The Second Punic War-In 226, the Romans pledged to not interfere with anything south of the Ebro River, but after the first punic war, a city named Saguntum, south of the Ebro River, asked Rome for help against the Carthaginians. The cause of the Second Punic War is an issue of some great debate. The origin of the 2d Punic war; to point out to us the causes of this contestbetween Romeand Carthage, allege first thesiege of Saguntumby the Carthaginians, and,secondly, their breach of treaty by crossing the river called bythe natives the Iber. Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. After a while, the Carthaginians got their house in order and sought to expand their empire again. The origins of the Second Punic War, which was very much Hannibal’s war, were the following. As stated, Roman Imperialism was … For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. If one was to select the most crucial factor that led to the war it was the burning hatred of the great Carthaginian for Rome. Hamilcar’s army was composed mainly of mercenaries, from Spain and North Africa, who were personally loyal to him. Even though the main cause of the second war was the war on Saguntum you must go back all the way to the ending of the First War. [17], It is not fashionable these days to assign much importance to the role of individuals in history. . Write the following events onto cards, and sort them in chronologcal order, adding a date where possible: Hannibal besieges Saguntum. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to examine the causes of the Second Punic War as given by two prominent ancient historians, Polybius and Livy, the key sources for the modern reader studying the conflict. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. Rome was now very much afraid of a Celtic-Carthaginian alliance and attacked Cisalpine Gaul (Southern France) to deny the Carthaginians an opportunity to attack the Republic. Rome did not want to just go in and defeat a nation they had just defeated. The Romans demanded that the Carthaginians evacuate Sicily. Write the following events onto cards, and sort them in chronologcal order, adding a date where possible: Hannibal besieges Saguntum. The Third Punic War was entirely avoidable was caused by Rome taking advantage of Carthage while they were weak. This faction briefly won a majority in the Carthaginian Senate or Assembly and entered into a secret agreement with the Celts in Northern Italy. However, for such a large and horrendous war, the question of who was the driving force is still asked. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. 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