350Pd. (Pt,Pd)S), tellurides (e.g. 8, 50 (1964)", "Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Discovery of the Platiniferous Merensky Reef", 10.1002/0471238961.1612012019052513.a01.pub2, "Evidence of huge deposits of platinum in State", "Identification of meteoritic components in imactites", "Effects of relativistic motion of electrons on the chemistry of gold and platinum", "Synthetic metallomolecules as agents for the control of DNA structure", "Sur les métaux égyptiens: Présence du platine parmi les caractères d'inscriptions hiéroglyphiques, confié à mon examn", "Ancient Platinum Technology in South America: Its use by the Indians in Pre-Hispanic Times", "Several Papers concerning a New Semi-Metal, Called Platina; Communicated to the Royal Society by Mr. Wm. Gold prices in Nepal are updated at Wednesday 09 December 2020, 09:00 pm, GMT (Thursday 10 December 2020, 02:45 am, Kathmandu time) 1 Ounce Gold = 240,323.48 Nepalese Rupee Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. 350 Irid." After several months, Chabaneau succeeded in producing 23 kilograms of pure, malleable platinum by hammering and compressing the sponge form while white-hot. The most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4. Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals. $500. He has authored several Gold & Silver Guides and has been featured on the History Channel, Zero Hedge, Gold-Eagle, Silver Seek, Value Walk and many more. Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only 190Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6.5×1011 years, causing an activity of 15 Bq/kg of natural platinum. improvement in Nepal, more especially the high altitude regions of the country. [37] Caesium platinide, Cs2Pt, a dark-red transparent crystalline compound[38] has been shown to contain Pt2− anions. 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable double beta decay paths. [28] In 2010, South Africa was the top producer of platinum, with an almost 77% share, followed by Russia at 13%; world production in 2010 was 192,000 kg (423,000 lb). Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Use only with reputable sellers! For other uses, see, CRC press encyclopedia of materials and finishes, 2nd edition, Mel Schwartz, 2002, Materials handbook, fifteenth edition, McGraw-Hill, by John Vaccari, 2002, Kelly, Thomas D. and Matos, Grecia R. (2013), Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Currency shocks knock platinum to 10-year lows", "The status of platinum anticancer drugs in the clinic and in clinical trials", "Live USD Platinum Price Charts & Historical Data", "J. C. Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev. [18], Platinum has six naturally occurring isotopes: 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt. Platinum coated auto-catalysts will continue to help deter a large portion of the harmful emissions that a vehicle makes. The current OSHA standard is 2 micrograms per cubic meter of air averaged over an 8-hour work shift. Until May 2019, the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in 1879.[67]. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. Jewelry that contains at least 950 parts per thousand of platinum group metals, with at least 500 parts per thousand of the total pure platinum, may be marked as platinum as long as the numbers of each metal are disclosed. They fled from Tibet to Nepal when the Chinese took over Tibet in the 1950s. [26][27] The large copper–nickel deposits near Norilsk in Russia, and the Sudbury Basin, Canada, are the two other large deposits. (We know that sounds confusing. $100. [24], In 1865, chromites were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in 1906. Come learn how rare physical platinum is indeed. Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. [82] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for platinum as 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. Both platinum coins and platinum bars are actually more rare in the world than gold, and certainly silver. It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal. Platinum Restaurant Group Inc is located in Fort Wayne, IN, United States and is part of the Restaurants Industry. [63], The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black. Thank You to our now 100,000+ customers who have made the switch to SD Bullion. [10][11] The metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Let us explain.) Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen. Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. See more. Electrodes inside of glass are usually sealed with platinum because its thermal coefficient of expansion is almost equal to that of glass. Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in 1784. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Platinum is dense, hard and white, and it is actually mostly a byproduct of nickel and copper mining in South Africa (about 70% of new line platinum use supplies come from there). [51], In 1735, Antonio de Ulloa and Jorge Juan y Santacilia saw Native Americans mining platinum while the Spaniards were travelling through Colombia and Peru for eight years. Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. This platinized platinum gives better results than pure .999 platinum does in applicable platinum-based chemical reactions. In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.5 ppm in the ore. Come see why we still value platinum and believe it to be perhaps the best long term precious metal value today. By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink, plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst. FREE Shipping by Amazon. Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6):[16], As a soft acid, platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent. iconic: [adjective] of, relating to, or having the characteristics of an icon. Great for Meditation, Yoga, Relaxation, and Healing. [39] Platinum also exhibits negative oxidation states at surfaces reduced electrochemically. Because platinum is more dense than gold, platinum rings will be heavier than gold as well. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite (PtAs2), is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. There are 7 companies in the Platinum Restaurant Group Inc corporate family. Based on the escalating demand for platinum and other critical commodities at these current price points. Platinum can be used in low voltage electrical contacts and electrical resistance wires. There is less in circulation so be alert when buying these. The NIST manufactured the wires from platinum bar stock with a chemical purity of 99.999% by weight). Platinum also has 34 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from 165 to 204, making the total number of known isotopes 40. Gold and platinum are the two most commonly used metals for engagement and wedding rings. Get it as soon as Mon, Dec 14. Platinum along with palladium applications have been paramount in quelling greenhouse gas emissions. [86], This article is about the chemical element. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid. Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture (circa 600 BC - AD 200), but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation. Platinum used for investments, adornment, pollution control, and within real-world goods critical to our modern ways of life will likely only escalate in the decades to come. [31], Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds. 4.6 out of 5 stars 307. One of the latest efforts taken in this direction was the establishment of … Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter, which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia (A mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids), to form chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6.[14]. [80] Some products, such as blenders and vehicles, with a silvery-white color are identified as "platinum". The FDA has approved the use of platinum for it hasn't found any evidence suggesting toxicity. Based on how little has been mined throughout history, platinum is the rarest physical precious metal we both buy and sell here at SD Bullion. Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. 2 bowls: 4 inches & 3.15 inch, Mallet, Ring Cushions and Nepal Cloth Bag. Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example. [17], Cisplatin, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) is the first of a series of square planar platinum(II)-containing chemotherapy drugs. After publishing the report in 1748, Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal. The least stable of these are 165Pt and 166Pt, with half-lives of 260 µs, whereas the most stable is 193Pt with a half-life of 50 years. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum(II) compounds tend to adopt 16-electron square planar geometries. 10540 to Rs. 30 Days Returns. Dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II) is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands ("cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene). [46][47], The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. Widely diverse applications also exist for platinum uses with over 25 industrial platinum uses such as: The uses of platinum group metals are in fact so critical to US National Security and US economic well being, that platinum is explicitly cited as being deemed 1 of 35 critical resources by the US Department of the Interior. The specific layer he found, named the Merensky Reef, contains around 75% of the world's known platinum. $40.50 $ 40. $200. Buy Platinum Jewellery Design and Shop from our large range of beautiful contemporary and ethnic Platinum Jewellery Designs starting at Rs. [17] The use of platinum(II) acetylacetonate has also been reported. Learn more. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. As the number of automobiles on the road worldwide increases continuously, air-pollution has become an environmental problem of public concern. Presently platinum is also used in resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), which are widely used to measure industrial temperatures. Here we will cover what is platinum used for in everyday life now. [8], Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, and malleable, silver-white metal. Total spends include all spends on your Platinum X credit card and … 188Pt, 191Pt, and 193Pt decay primarily by electron capture. World class products, the best bullion prices, with industry-top customer service. Unfortunately our Platinum Optimum bank account is only available to Standard Bank Group Private Banking clients. The frame of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, manufactured for her coronation as Consort of King George VI, is made of platinum. It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen. $1,200. Astrologers recommend this gemstone to strengthen weak Saturn in an individual’s horoscope. The manufacturing of specialty silicones may require platinum for highly durable, waterproof, and electrically insulating materials. Now over 95% of all new automobiles come with catalytic converters. ), the possibility that platinum could enter the body and cause adverse effects has merited study. [83], As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants (breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum. Platinum Restaurant Group Inc has 300 total employees across all of its locations and generates $18.14 million in sales (USD). Platinum finds use in jewellery, usually as a 90–95% alloy, due to its inertness. Platinum investing is a relatively new phenomenon given the platinum price discovery only recently began on the NYMEX in the 1970s. [81], According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies. A modern automobile’s catalytic converter helps convert over 90% of harmful elements like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides from gasoline engines into less harmful carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor. For example, in the United States, a musical album that has sold more than 1 million copies will be credited as "platinum", whereas an album that has sold more than 10 million copies will be certified as "diamond". Computer hard disks often contain platinum in the magnetic layers. He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic. In both Tibet and Nepal, jewelry is important in dress, spirituality, and life. The previous bar was made of platinum in 1799. Platinum is also the least reactive precious metal and is known for its resistance to corrosion and tarnishing to open air. [49][50] The platinum used in such objects was not the pure element, but rather a naturally occurring mixture of the platinum group metals, with small amounts of palladium, rhodium, and iridium. In 1750, after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society, stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals. In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. Learn more. A weak Saturn can hamper wearer’s decision-making power, financial conditions and psychological health. Platinum fuel cells are also used to generate backup power for buildings. We have platinum use in diamond earrings, finger rings, pendants, bracelets, and more. In 1741, Charles Wood,[53] a British metallurgist, found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation. Manufacturing silicones for water repellent coatings, high consistency rubbers, and liquid silicone rubbers, often require platinum catalysts. Arceus is a white equine resembling a qilin or centaur with a gray, vertically-striated underside. These include BaPt, Ba3Pt2, and Ba2Pt. The striated pattern has similar recurrences on the underside of its mane, tail, and face. [56], In 1786, Charles III of Spain provided a library and laboratory to Pierre-François Chabaneau to aid in his research of platinum. Platinum is present in the optical fibers and liquid crystal display glass, especially in laptops. Platinum is paramagnetic, whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. 198Pt can undergo alpha decay, but its decay has never been observed (the half-life is known to be longer than 3.2×1014 years); therefore, it is considered stable. Platinum compounds like 'cisplatin', get used in chemotherapy medication to treat certain types of cancer. [52], Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals, is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing. This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals. Hard disk drives are often now present in TVs, video games consoles, and other home entertainment systems. The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes. 50. How Many Pennyweights in an Ounce of Gold? 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Platinum Close Care ; $ 1,000 as it neither tarnishes nor wears out platinum meaning in nepali latter... How gold and platinum ( II ) compounds tend to adopt 16-electron planar... As an investment If you are planning to buy platinum Jewellery Designs starting at Rs and. Been shown to contain Pt2− anions be considered an investment If you are planning to platinum! The 1950s nor warp easily chloroplatinate can be removed by stirring the.... Where a base is desired, the possibility that platinum could enter body. Possible they did not recognize there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold silver! In 1799 the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo common oxidation states at reduced! Privileges than `` gold '' cards the body and cause adverse effects has merited study product... And tarnish platinum meaning in nepali well suited to use in diamond earrings, finger rings, pendants bracelets. 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