Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service 52: 1-23. Blue-spotted salamanders are found from eastern central North America and stretch in a broad band across to the Atlantic Provinces and northern New England. Further to the Terms and conditions for this website, some of the photos, drawings, and graphical elements found in material produced by COSEWIC are subject to copyrights held by other organizations and by individuals. NatureServe 2008, AmphibiaWeb 2010). Since 2004, microsatellite gene loci have provided a better method for genetic testing (Julian et al. Cook, F.R. Lynch, D.M. There is some slight size difference between the males and the females. Poison glands are especially concentrated in the skin on the dorsal surface of the tail. There is no aquatic larval stage and the hatchlings are about seven-eighths-inch long. In 2003 and 2004, researchers surveyed historically known breeding sites along the Niagara Escarpment that were documented in 1990 and 1991. Lacking its own males, the LJJ biotype breeds with male Blue-Spotted or Jefferson Salamanders from March to April. Frequency of Ambystoma jeffersonianum and unisexuals found in three Ontario breeding ponds. 1987. Weins et al. Nevertheless, there are many questions left to be answered with respect to the interactions of unisexual salamanders and their sperm donors. Bishop, S.C. 1941. All known Ontario populations of A. jeffersonianum also have unisexual individuals that may be diploid (LJ), triploid, (LJJ), tetraploid (LJJJ), or even pentaploid (LJJJJ). Introduction to Canadian Amphibians and Reptiles. Little is known about either the age of first reproduction or the frequency of reproduction for either sex. Scott Sampson, Natural Heritage Ecologist, Credit Valley Conservation. 1992. These larger recent samples show that most or all salamanders in all populations are LJJ. It was found, however, in breeding ponds at Location A, that 128 of 168 genetically identified A. jeffersonianum were males (76%) (Ramsden 2005). 1998. There are also several reports of caddisfly larvae of this genus preying on eggs of congeneric species, A. maculatum and A. tigrinum (Eastern Tiger Salamander) (Murphy 1961, Dalrymple 1970). All populations where A. jeffersonianum (JJ) have been found also contain unisexual Ambystoma (LJJ). In three separate studies that involved sample sizes > 100 individuals, the percentage of A. jeffersonianum ranged from ~ 8 to 33% of sampled individuals (Table 1). 1989. When hatched, larvae feed on zooplankton until they are large enough to feed on larger invertebrates that include nematodes, water mites, cladocerans, copepods, collembolans, mosquito larvae, chironomid larvae, snails, and assorted insects (Smith and Petranka 1987). The first group of males typically precedes the arrival of the first females. Current data suggest that while males breed annually, females may skip one or more years before breeding again. Due to the loss of wetlands and the destruction of forests, the salamanders are threatened. When theories and methodologies clash: a phylogenetic reanalysis of the North American ambystomatid salamanders (Caudata, Ambystomatidae). Additional distributional records of Ambystoma laterale, A. jeffersonianum (Amphibia: Caudata) and their unisexual kleptogens in northeastern North America. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico. Over the range of A. jeffersonianum, there are other species of Ambystoma that have similar attributes and share similar habitats. Marbled Salamanders do not. In both laboratory predation experiments and field observations (Rowe et al. NatureServe (2008) rank for Ambystoma jeffersonianum for all jurisdictions within its global range. obs.). Larval keys (Petranka 1998) do not distinguish A. jeffersonianum larvae from those of A. laterale or unisexual Ambystoma. In that report, the term ‘Jefferson salamander complex’ referred to specimens which had not been subjected to genetic analysis. COSEWIC. Noble and J. Niedzwieki. Shaffer, H.B, and M.L. 1992. There are some localities outside the documented range of A. jeffersonianum from which LJJ or LJJJ unisexual Ambystomahave been positively identified. The males tend to be slightly smaller than the females, the males also have a longer more flattened tail (Harding 1997). The hybrid between blue-spotted salamander and Jefferson salamander is called A. platineum. Brook. 1992. Adult Jefferson Salamanders, throughout their range, are found within deciduous or mixed upland forests containing, or adjacent to, suitable breeding ponds. 2000. The 33 recently confirmed sites gave an IAO of 196 km². Status re-examined and designated Endangered in November 2010. Other than the few days spent in the breeding pond, adults live and forage in deciduous or mixed woodlands. There are many such references to “jefferson complex” and the taxonomy is confusing because A. laterale and A. jeffersonianum (including the unisexuals) were synonymized under A. jeffersonianum until the early 1960s. The male leads her to the spermatophore and the female picks it up with her cloaca (Harding 1997). These salamanders can live for ~ 25 yrs, so unisexuals could continue to come to breeding ponds for several years even if A. jeffersonianum males did not. Some phylogenies (e.g. Cortwright, S.A. 1988. Feder, M.E., J.F. At two weeks old, the front legs form and at 3 weeks the hind limbs are formed. Special Concern (SC)* A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats. ... Ambystoma jeffersonianum is often found in the same habitat as the spotted salamander. Some small permanent ponds on private lands and within conservation areas have been stocked with predatory fish to provide recreational fishing opportunities (J.P. Bogart, W.J. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. ), but there have been no reports of predation on A. jeffersonianum egg masses. Jefferson Salamander, Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green), was first described as Salamandra jeffersoniana,by Green in 1827 (in Uzzell 1967) and the type locality given as, “near Chartier’s creek in the vicinity of Jefferson college (formerly) at Cannonsburg, (Washington County, Pennsylvania)”. Only three sites were confirmed to have A. jeffersonianum with the remaining 15 sites no longer supporting A. jeffersonianum or unisexuals (Jefferson Salamander Recovery Team 2009). There are now fewer than 30 extant populations (defined here as equivalent to number of known, extant breeding ponds or locations) that still maintain A. jeffersonianum. King and W.K. the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic. Courtship and egg deposition may occur under the ice of vernal pools and individual males court several females. Migratory paths between a breeding pond and summer habitat may be blocked by development, silt fencing, drainage ditches, some plantations, or other barriers. Isolated populations have been recorded in east-central Illinois (Petranka, 1998, Mullen and Klueh 2009). The larvae of blue-spotted salamanders vary in appearance. The reference numbers are voucher specimens or DNA extractions from the catalogue of James P. Bogart (JPB). These specimens show the range of colour and amount of blue flecking that may be found in this species. Relations of the diploid and triploid species of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex (Amphibia, Caudata). 2010. Table 1 provides data derived from four such surveys. Adult A. jeffersonianum throughout their range are found near or within deciduous or mixed upland forests (Klemens 1993) containing suitable breeding ponds. v + 18 pp. The green salamander seeks its mate sometime from May to August. The larval period varies from 2 to 4 months and is likely related to water temperature, available food and hydro period (Downs 1989). Larvae of A. jeffersonianum are voracious aquatic predators that feed on moving prey items such as insect larvae, small crustaceans, and amphibian larvae. Unlike most populations in the United States (Bogart and Klemens 1997, 2008), A. jeffersonianum and A. laterale in Ontario are often parapatric and the sympatric occurrence of these species has been documented in one population (Bogart et al. August 2010). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:848-855. Over the past three generations, the species has disappeared from many historic locations and the remaining locations are threatened by development, loss of habitat and, potentially, the presence of sperm-stealing unisexual populations of salamanders. The female attends the eggs during the 12 or so weeks they take to hatch. Their skin is bluish-black (Conant and Collins 1998). This sometimes makes identificatio… Courtship of A. jeffersonianum was described by Mohr (1931). The salamander's tail is broadly oval at the base and compressed towards the tip. Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in number of mature individuals? A few of the documented populations in Ontario have been repeatedly surveyed, and some of these populations have been stable over a relatively long period of time (e.g., Location A and Location D) based on surveys performed in 1979, 1981, 1990 (NHIC 1998), and 2004-2006 (Bériault 2005, Ramsden 2005). American Museum of Natural History Novitates 3627: 1-58. Eggs are laid in small agglomerations attached to submerged twigs or other natural support at the pond's edge. Ambystoma maculatum is syntopic in virtually all Ontario populations of A. jeffersonianum, but there is no indication that either species has a serious impact on the other. ABSTRACT An Ecological Study of the Spotted Salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, and Jefferson Salamander, A. jeffersonianum, in West Virginia by Seth Myers The movements of Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum, in and out of an ephemeral wetland in West Virginia were monitored for one breeding season using a drift fence lined with Topics In Ontario, there are populations of unisexuals that are in the process of switching sperm donors from A. jeffersonianum to A. laterale, and historical records reveal that this transition can happen very rapidly. 3rd edition, expanded. Copeia 1983: 1036-1041. Under dry and freezing conditions, Jefferson salamanders burrow underground or in rotting logs. 2009. Unisexual salamanders represent a biological novelty unlike any other organism so far found in the animal kingdom and do not fit into any of the concepts that define a biological or an evolutionary species. 2005. and E.D. It is a unisexual clonal triploid. 1961. Because breeding might be limited to a few nights in March and early April, it is not possible to observe breeding activity over the complete range of A. jeffersonianum in Ontario in a single season. For the Ipperwash record, and likely other records as well, there is no evidence that A. jeffersonianum is present. The morphology of Ambystoma jeffersonianum has been described by a number of authors (Bishop 1941, Minton 1954, Uzzell 1967, Cook 1984, Conant and Collins 1998, Petranka 1998). Both types of predators have been observed on or within egg masses of A. maculatum in Ontario (J.P. Bogart, W.J. 2007; and unpublished). Toxic effects of salts applied for road de-icing can extend considerable distances into wetlands and have been demonstrated to be detrimental to A. maculatum (Turtle 2000, Karraker et al. Status history Designated Threatened in November 2000. The closest U.S. populations of A. jeffersonianum to Ontario populations are in Cattaraugus and Wayne counties in New York where unisexual LJJ are also found (Bogart and Klemens 2008). Sex in unisexual salamanders: discovery of a new sperm donor with ancient affinities. animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature. Some recent intensive surveys have targeted suspected breeding ponds using drift fences combined with pit-fall traps to capture individuals migrating to and from breeding ponds (see Heyer et al. Downs reported that juveniles could be found as far as 92 m from the breeding pond in a 10-day period. Females, including both A. jeffersonianum and unisexuals, followed a similar pattern with 10% of 206 females returning each year, 6% not returning until 4 years later, and the remainder of the females returning/skipping years in various combinations. In Canada, it has a NatureServe rank of N2 (imperiled), and in the U.S., and globally, it has a rank of N4 or G4, (apparently secure, i.e., uncommon but not rare) (NatureServe 2008). Pond fidelity, where individuals continually return to the same pond for breeding, has also been confirmed in Mole Salamanders (A. talpoideum) (Raymond and Hardy 1990). It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. In Pfingsten, R.A., and F.L. The belly is lighter and unmarked (Harding 1997). James (Jim) Bogart is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of Guelph. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Thompson, E.L., J.E. SARA establishes COSEWIC as an advisory body ensuring that species will continue to be assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific process. Sever (ed), Reproductive Biology and Phylogeney of Urodela (Amphibia). Taylor. Little is known about predation on juvenile and adult A. jeffersonianum. The salamander breeds in woodland ponds and ditches (Conant and Collins 1998). 2006. Identification of A. jeffersonianum became complicated following Clanton’s (1934) observation that there were two distinct groups of individuals in populations of A. jeffersonianum in southern Michigan: a group of “dark” individuals and a group of “light” individuals. obs.). Unisexuals have a higher population density than do bisexual A. jeffersonianum. 2007). Considering the limited movements in this species, current distribution, and barriers to dispersal, rescue from the U.S. is highly improbable. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Both the aquatic as well as terrestrial groups mate and breed under water bodies. Ambystoma jeffersonianum received a COSEWIC status of Threatened in November 2000 (COSEWIC 2000). Data Deficient (DD)*** A category that applies when the available information is insufficient (a) to resolve a species’ eligibility for assessment or (b) to permit an assessment of the species’ risk of extinction. Global range of Ambystoma jeffersonianum (from Petranka 1998). Because unisexuals steal sperm from males, this unique reproductive mode is termed kleptogenesis (Bogart et al. 1990. 587pp. Bob Murphy, Senior Curator, Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum. Many serve on the Recovery Team (below) and the report writer would like especially to thank Brenda Van Ryswyk from Halton Region Conservation Authority. Biological Conservation 139: 159-166. Brodman, R. 1995. Since the last report (COSSARO 2000), there has been significant new scientific information that allows more accurate and precise estimates of numbers and distribution of Jefferson Salamanders in Ontario (COSEWIC 2010, in … A few isolated populations occur in Waterloo County, Brant County, and in Haldimand-Norfolk Region. They grow to 5 inches long and are black with small light blue spots on their backs and sides. They also have granular glands that are mostly concentrated on their tail. 2010. Lisa Grbinicek, Environmental Planner, Ecological Monitoring Specialist, Ontario’s Niagara Escarpment (ONE) Monitoring Program, Niagara Escarpment Commission. The temporal data relate to the first time that the population was discovered (First Year), and the subsequent years that the population was still found to contain A. jeffersonianum and/or unisexual individuals. American Museum of Natural History Bulletin 297: 1-370. Amphibians and reptiles in Connecticut: a checklist with notes on conservation status, identification, and distribution. The reason for this loss of spermatophores is that as the unisexuals increase they would take more and more spermatophores leading to a decline in reproductive success of Jefferson females. and W.A. Whiskers (error bars) above and below the box indicate the 90th and 10th percentiles. It was named after Jefferson College in Pennsylvania. 2003. Novel Jefferson salamander, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, microsatellite DNA markers detect population structure and hybrid complexes. The report writer thanks the members of the Jefferson Salamander Recovery Strategy Development Team who have worked hard to find salamanders in historic populations and in new areas. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. These sites include limestone sinkhole ponds, kettle ponds and other natural basins (Nyman et al. 1968. Piersol, W.H. Ambystoma jeffersonianum was included, with other Mole Salamanders, in the family Ambystomatidae. 200pp. Over most of its range in the U.S., Jefferson Salamander is listed as secure but it is listed as imperiled in Vermont and Illinois. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. They transform in late summer (CCIW 1999). Ohio Biol. Ecologists working for various conservation authorities have provided data from historical populations and have found new sites. Reproduction. Hayek and M.S. Clanton (1934) hypothesized that spermatophores could be limiting in unisexual dominated populations and that female A. jeffersonianum might lose out to unisexual females, which would continually reduce the population of A. jeffersonianum until there was no longer any recruitment. They are found around the Great Lakes and west as far as central Manitoba. Gynogenetic reproduction is where sperm from a host species is needed to activate the egg development but makes no genetic contribution (Spolsky 1992). 2005) include Dicamptodon in the family Ambystomatidae. that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). This hybrid was known as ‘Tremblay's salamander.’ Because Individuals in a Kentucky population of A. jeffersonianum enter and exit a breeding pond from the same point as well as returning to the same area of the forest after breeding (Douglas and Monroe 1981). November 6, 1999 This evidence suggests that unisexual Ambystoma will accept any suitable sperm donor and the identification of that sperm donor can be revealed in ploidy elevated individuals found among offspring of mixed ploidy egg masses (see also Bogart et al. Hardy. Madeline Austen, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service. It has been proposed that unisexual Ambystoma might affect population densities of A. jeffersonianum (and other possible sperm donors). 2009). Even when breeding ponds are fairly close to one another (1-2 km apart), adults show strong fidelity to their own breeding pond, and there is likely little or no mixing between populations from different ponds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57: 2303-2310. This material is based upon work supported by the Pp 31-108. in D.M. 1991), that demonstrate very few, mostly homozygous, alternative allozymes in A. jeffersonianum and A. laterale. M. Sc. Two long-term data sets (Location C, and Weller pond) indicate > 90% decline over < 3 generations (33 years). This eliminates the possibility that the unisexuals could have arisen from a hybridization event that involved females of either A. laterale or A. jeffersonianum. Habitat for A. jeffersonianum in southern Ontario is restricted to fragmented woodlands on marginal agricultural land, including portions of the Niagara Escarpment. Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? In: Sever DM (ed). Overall, most sampled populations likely have at most only a few hundred adult Jefferson Salamanders, but most have many fewer and the total number of adults in Ontario may be < 2500 (J. Bogart pers. Donato, M. 2000. 2003, Ramsden et al. Collicutt, D. 1999. Journal of Herpetology 14: 113-120. Sutherland, D. A., W. D. Bakowsky, M. E. Gartshore and P. C. Carson. Catalogue No. Figure 2. It is now known (Bogart et al. Some historic ponds have been stocked with carnivorous fishes, some no longer hold water for the necessary time for larval development, and some have been lost to development. Brimleyana 9: 135-140. Adults over-winter in the terrestrial environment below the frost line. The degree of mixing is being investigated currently (J.P. Bogart pers. In other words, these unisexuals mimic the normal, observable, behaviour of female A. jeffersonianum. Using new methods, samples can be much larger and have shown that A. jeffersonianum makes up only a small percentage of any population. Weller, W. F. and W. G. Sprules. Mature females are slightly longer than mature males. Secretariat provided two calculations of extent of occurrence spermatophores only stimulate egg development ; their genetic material does not to. He noted that there seemed to be largely unresolved or yellowish stripes down each side of the.! Relation to sex, hybridity, ploidy, and in Haldimand-Norfolk Region no egg masses of A. jeffersonianum egg and! Amount of blue flecking that may be found this species previous report ( 2000. Roads intersect migratory routes to and from breeding ponds in a unisexual-bisexual complex of (. Having body symmetry such that the pond consistently dries up before the ground has completely thawed ( Bishop 1941 J... 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